The bibliography prepared by Mary Lynn Kotz for Robert Rauschenberg: A Retrospective (New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1997) has been revised and updated by Helen Hsu, with additional research by Amanda Sroka.

Most citations provide original-publication information only. Reprints or later versions are given if commonly referenced or significantly revised from the originals, or if original sources are particularly difficult to access. Please consult the exhibition history for exhibition catalogues, brochures, and reviews. The bibliography is organized in the following sections:

The Select Audiovisual Bibliography was originally compiled by Lisa Schiff and has been revised and updated by Jennifer Sarathy with staff at the Robert Rauschenberg Foundation.





Statement in “Is Today’s Artist with or Against the Past?” Artnews (New York) 57, no. 4 (Summer 1958), pp. 46, 56.



“How Important Is the Surface to Design? Robert Rauschenberg: An Artist Explains.” Print (New York) 13, no. 1 (Jan.–Feb. 1959), p. 31.

Statement in Contemporary American Painting and Sculpture, p. 258. Exh. cat. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1959.

Statement in Sixteen Americans, edited by Dorothy C. Miller, p. 58. Exh. cat. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1959. Reprinted in Readings in American Art 1900–1975, edited by Barbara Rose, p. 149. New York: Praeger, 1975.



Statement in 4 Amerikanare: Jasper Johns, Alfred Leslie, Robert Rauschenberg, Richard Stankiewicz, p. 38. Exh. cat. Stockholm: Moderna Museet, 1962.



“Random Order.” Location (New York) 1, no. 1 (Spring 1963), pp. 27–31.

“Note on Painting, Oct. 31–Nov. 2, 1963.” SAC Journal (Tokyo), no. 34 (Dec. 1963), unpaginated. Reprinted in John Russell and Suzi Gablik. Pop Art Redefined, pp. 101–02. New York: Praeger, 1969.



“Öyvind Fahlström (Oct. 1961).” Art and Literature (Lausanne), no. 3 (Autumn–Winter 1964), p. 219.



Statement in Rolf-Günter Dienst. Pop Art: Eine kritische Information, p. 117. Translated by Marguerite Schlüter. Wiesbaden, Germany: Limes, 1965.



Statement in Leonard Lyons. “The Lyons Den.” Baltimore Sun, Jan. 5, 1966, sec. B, p. 6.



Statement in Art in Process: The Visual Development of a Collage, unpaginated. Exh. brochure. New York: Finch College Museum of Art, 1967.

“Books: Inside the Endless House, ‘An Invitation to Be Lovable.’” Vogue (New York) 149, no. 5 (March 1, 1967), p. 111. Review of Frederick Kiesler, Inside the Endless House: A Journal on Art, People and Architecture (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966).

Statement in “How Painters Paint America.” New York Times, May 21, 1967, sec. D, p. 23.



Statement (Feb. 1968) in “Robert Rauschenberg: Soundings.” Members Newsletter, Museum of Modern Art (New York), no. 1 (Oct. 1968), unpaginated.

Statement in “The Arts and the Critic.” Grinnell Magazine (Grinnell College, Iowa) 1, no. 3 (Summer 1968), pp. 33–34.



“Autobiography.” In Andrew Forge. Rauschenberg, pp. 225–29. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1969.

Statement in Art Now: New York (University Galleries, New York) 1, no. 5 (May 1969), unpaginated portfolio.

Statement in Alain Hervé. “Eating into Art.” Réalités (Paris), no. 225 (Aug. 1969), pp. 52, 54.

“Robert Rauschenberg: Notes on Stoned Moon Lithographic Project (Oct. 28, 1969).” Studio International (London) 178, no. 917 (Dec. 1969), cover and pp. 246–47.



“Introduction.” In Rauschenberg Currents, unpaginated. Exh. cat. Minneapolis: Dayton’s Gallery 12, 1970.

“Work Notes—1962.” In Edward A. Foster. “Introduction.” In Robert Rauschenberg: Prints 1948/1970, unpaginated. Exh. cat. Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 1970.

Statement on Currents. Exhibition announcement. New York: Automation House and Castelli Graphics, 1970. Reprinted in Douglas Davis. “What Is Content? Notes Toward an Answer.” Artforum (New York) 12, no. 2 (Oct. 1973), p. 60.

Statement on Signs. Exhibition announcement. New York: Automation House and Castelli Graphics, 1970.

Statement in “Dance Magazine Awards: Recognition of a World Community.” Dance Magazine (New York) 44, no. 8 (Aug. 1970), p. 59.



“Note: Cardbirds.” In Rauschenberg: Cardbirds. Exh. brochure. Los Angeles: Gemini G.E.L, 1971.



Statement (1970) in Douglas Davis. “Robert Rauschenberg: Technology as Nature.” In Davis. Art and the Future: A History/Prophecy of the Collaboration Between Science, Technology and Art, p. 144. New York: Praeger, 1973.

Statements in “History.” In Jack Cowart and James Elliott. Prints from the Untitled Press, Captiva, Florida, pp. 5–6. Exh. cat. Hartford, Conn.: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1973.

Statement in Marcel Duchamp, edited by Anne d’Harnoncourt and Kynaston McShine, p. 217. Exh. cat. New York: Museum of Modern Art; Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1973.



Statement (Oct. 4, 1974) in Merce Cunningham, edited by James Klosty, p. 83. New York: Saturday Review Press; E. P. Dutton, 1975.



Statement in Twelve Americans: Masters of Collage, unpaginated. Exh. cat. New York: Andrew Crispo Gallery, 1977.

Statement (Feb. 26, 1976) in Philip Smith. “To and about Robert Rauschenberg.” Arts Magazine (New York) 51, no. 7 (March 1977), p. 121.

Statement in “White in Art Is White?” Print Collector’s Newsletter (New York) 8, no. 1 (March–April 1977), p. 3.

Statement in Grace Glueck. “The 20th-Century Artists Most Admired by Other Artists.” Artnews (New York) 76, no. 9 (Nov. 1977), pp. 95–96, 97.



Statement in Judith Goldman. “Touching Moonlight.” Artnews (New York) 77, no. 9 (Nov. 1978), p. 63.



Statement in Gerrit Henry. “Paper in Transition.” Print Collector’s Newsletter (New York) 10, no. 3 (July–Aug. 1979), p. 84.

Statement in Grace Glueck. “Paradigms, Watersheds and Frosting on the Cake.” Artnews (New York) 78, no. 8 (Oct. 1979), p. 202.

Contribution in “What Is Your Favorite Photograph? 13 Celebs Searched Their Souls—and Files.” People (New York) 12, no. 26 (Dec. 24, 1979), p. 120.



Statement in “The Painters’ Word: 39 Lofty Views on Picasso.” SoHo Weekly News (New York), May 21, 1980, p. 13.

Statement in Richard Turner. “Campaign Spending Loophole Makes Artists New Power Brokers.” Los Angeles Herald Examiner, June 2, 1980, sec. A, p. 3.

Statement in Grace Glueck. “How Picasso’s Vision Affects American Artists.” New York Times, June 22, 1980, sec. 2, p. 25.

Letter to Ellen Sharp on cliché-verre (June 27, 1980). Printable News (Detroit Institute of Arts) (Dec. 1980), p. 5.



Klüver, Billy, and Robert Rauschenberg. “Art en mouvement: Souvenirs conjugués/Kunst in beweging: Een gekombineerde herinnering.” In Le Moderna Museet de Stockholm à Bruxelles/Het Moderna Museet Van Stockholm te Brussel, pp. 35–40. Exh. cat. Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 1981. Reprinted as “Rörelse i konsten—en kombinerad minnesbild.” In Moderna Museet 1958–1983, pp. 143–50. Stockholm: Moderna Museet, 1983. Reprinted as “Art in Motion—A Combined Memory.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 114–18.

Statement in Rauschenberg. Photos In + Out City Limits: Boston. West Islip, N.Y.: Universal Limited Art Editions, 1981. Standard and deluxe editions. Reprinted in Rauschenberg. Photos In + Out City Limits: New York C. West Islip, N.Y.: Universal Limited Art Editions, 1982.

Statement (Jan. 11, 1981) in Rauschenberg Photographe, unpaginated. Translated by Didier Pemerlein. Exh. cat. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, Musée National d’Art Moderne and Éditions Herscher, 1981. Reprinted in Robert Rauschenberg Photographs. New York: Pantheon Books; London: Thames and Hudson, 1981. Revised and reprinted in American Photographer (New York) 7, no. 5 (Nov. 1981), pp. 86–91. Translated and reprinted in Robert Rauschenberg fotografia. Exh. cat. Forte di Belvedere, Florence. Florence: Alinari, 1982.

Statement in “Trans World: Rauschenberg at the Tate.” Horizon (Tuscaloosa, Ala.) 24, no. 5 (May 1981), p. 15.



Statement in David Sears. “A Trisha Brown–Robert Rauschenberg Collage.” Ballet Review (New York) 10, no. 3 (Autumn 1982), pp. 47–51.



Statement in Denise Domergue. Artists Design Furniture, p. 131. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984.

Statement in “If You Had Your Fondest Wishes for the Arts.” New York Times, Jan. 1, 1984, sec. 2, p. 16.

Statement (Feb. 1, 1984) in Rauschenberg, unpaginated (in English). Exh. cat. Basel: Galerie Beyeler, 1984.



“Manifesto.” In El soñado mundo de Rauschenberg: ROCI, p. 4. Exh. brochure. Mexico City: Museo Rufino Tamayo Contemporáneo Internacional. Reprinted in exh. cats. and brochures for subsequent ROCI venues.



Statement in Harvey Stein. Artists Observed, p. 158. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1986.

Statement in Wendy Lin. “The Boy from Port Arthur.” Art and Antiques (Marion, Ohio) (Feb. 1986), p. 60.

Statement (May 1, 1986) in Beuys zu Ehren, p. 478. Translated by Claudia Schinkievicz. Exh. cat. Munich: Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, 1986.



Statement in The International Art Show for the End of World Hunger, p. 32. Exh. cat. Minnesota Museum of Art, St. Paul. New York: Artists to End Hunger, 1987.

Statement in A Tribute to John Cage, p. 34a. Exh. cat. Cincinnati: Carl Solway Gallery, 1987.

Statement in U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Hearings on the Nomination of Hon. Robert H. Bork to Be Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, 100th Cong., 1st sess., 1987. Rauschenberg’s testimony appears pp. 213–42 passim. Reprinted in part in “Panel Hearing on Bork as Justice: Professors and Artists Voice Their Views.” New York Times, Sept. 23, 1987, sec. A, p. 28.



Statements in Craig Bromberg. “That Collaborative Itch.” Artnews (New York) 87, no. 9 (Nov. 1988), p. 162.



Statement in “A Collective Portrait of Andy Warhol.” In Andy Warhol: A Retrospective, edited by Kynaston McShine, p. 429. Exh. cat. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1989.

Statement in “Willem de Kooning, on His Eighty-Fifth Birthday.” Special issue of Art Journal (College Art Association, New York) 48, no. 3 (Autumn 1989), p. 232.

Statement in Dodie Kazanjian. “Cube Roots.” Vogue (New York) 179, no. 9 (Sept. 1989), p. 729.

Statement in “What Is Pornography?” Artnews (New York) 88, no. 8 (Oct. 1989), pp. 138–43.



Statement in Donald J. Saff. “Conservation of Matter: Robert Rauschenberg’s Art of Acceptance.” Aperture (New York), no. 125 (Autumn 1991), p. 26.

“Tobago Statement” (Oct. 22, 1984). In Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange, p. 154. Exh. cat. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1991.



Statements in “The Art of Assemblage: A Symposium (1961).” Transcript edited by Joseph Ruzicka with introduction by Roger Shattuck. In Essays on Assemblage, edited by John Elderfield, pp. 124–58 passim. Studies in Modern Art 2. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1992.

Statement in Terra motus alla Reggia di Caserta, p. 132. Exh. cat. Naples: Fondazione Amelio, Istituto per l’Arte Contemporanea, Electa Napoli, and Guida Editori, 1992.

Statement in Visions of America, p. 23. Los Angeles: Democratic National Convention, 1992.

“Alquiloni (Kites).” Abitare (Milan), no. 305 (March 1992), pp. 205–09 (in English and Italian).



“Message from the Second Hiroshima Art Prize Winner.” In The Second Hiroshima Art Prize: Robert Rauschenberg, pp. 10–11 (in English and Japanese). Exh. cat. Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, 1993.

Statement in New York on Paper, p. 1. Exh. brochure. Basel: Galerie Beyeler, 1993.



Statement in Thyrza Nichols Goodeve. “Genius Envy.” Artforum (New York) 35, no. 3 (Nov. 1996), p. 10.



“Haywire—Durcheinander: In Erinnerung an das Leben und die Liebe, für Bill de Kooning.” Süddeutsche Zeitung (Munich), March 21, 1997, p. 13.

“Seen of the Crime.” Grand Street (New York), no. 62 (Autumn 1997), p. 21.



Statement in “Reflections on Dominique de Menil.” Houston Chronicle, Jan. 1, 1998, sec. A, p. 20.



“About My Paintings.” In Rauschenberg: Anagrams (A Pun), unpaginated. Exh. cat. New York: Pace Wildenstein, 1999.

“Acceptance by Robert Rauschenberg.” Gold Medal for Painting. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Letters (New York) 2nd series, no. 50 (1999), p. 64.

Statement in “Indelible Memories.” American Photo (New York) 10, no. 6 (Nov.–Dec. 1999), p. 82.



“Short Stories—2K+1, You Are the Author.” In Robert Rauschenberg: Short Stories, unpaginated. Exh. cat. Zurich: Galerie Jamileh Weber, 2001. Reprinted in Short Stories by Robert Rauschenberg, p. 5. Exh. cat. New York: Pace Wildenstein, 2003.



“Half in Jest / Half Unjust” (ca. 1960) and letter to Philip Pavia, May 31 (ca. 1960). In Catherine Craft. “Lost and Found.” Art in America (New York) 99, no. 10 (Nov. 2011), pp. 145–53.






Parinaud, André. “Un ‘Misfit’ de la peinture new-yorkaise se confesse.” Arts (Paris), no. 821 (May 10, 1961), p. 18.



Jouffroy, Alain, and Robert Rauschenberg. “Barge: Poème sur un tableau de Robert Rauschenberg.” Quadrum (Brussels), no. 15 (1963), pp. 99–106. With quotations from interviews with Rauschenberg by Jouffroy (Jan.–July 1963).



Tōno, Yoshiaki. “Poppu āto to watashi: Raushenbāgu [Pop art and myself: an interview with Rauschenberg].” Geijutsu shinchō (Tokyo) 16, no. 2 (Feb. 1965), pp. 58–61. In Japanese.

Seckler, Dorothy Gees. Oral history interview with Robert Rauschenberg, Dec. 21, 1965, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Accessed July 7, 2014.



Seckler, Dorothy Gees. “The Artist Speaks: Robert Rauschenberg.” Photographs by Ugo Mulas. Art in America (New York) 54, no. 3 (May–June 1966), cover and pp. 72–84. Audiotape and transcript of original interview (Dec. 21, 1965) on deposit, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Moyano, Maricla. “Pop: Interviews with Artist Robert Rauschenberg, Choreographer Yvonne Rainer and Composer John Cage in Washington Last Month for the NOW Festival.” Washington Post Potomac, June 5, 1966, pp. 26–34.



Fatt, Amelia. “Designers for the Dance, Part III.” Dance Magazine (New York) 41 (April 1967), p. 57.

Amaral, Aracy. “Rauschenberg por nova arte integrada.” O Estado de S. Paulo (São Paulo), Sept. 27, 1967, p. 12.



Kostelanetz, Richard. “A Conversation with Robert Rauschenberg.” Partisan Review (New Brunswick, N.J.) 35, no. 1 (Winter 1968), pp. 92–106. Revised and reprinted as “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Kostelanetz. The Theatre of Mixed Means: An Introduction to Happenings, Kinetic Environments, and Other Mixed-Means Performances, pp. 78–99. New York: Dial Press, 1968.

Barbu, Eugen. “Convorbire cu Robert Rauschenberg.” Luceafărul (Bucharest), Jan. 20, 1968.

Wijers, Louwrien. “Robert Rauschenberg: Citaten uit interview gezegd op 2 februari 1968.” Museumjournaal (Amsterdam) 13, no. 3 (1968), pp. 146–48.

van Garrel, Betty. “De toekomst van de kunst.” Haagse Post (Amsterdam) (March 3, 1968), pp. 20–21.

Sorin, Raphaël. “Robert Rauschenberg.” La Quinzaine littéraire (Paris), no. 60 (Nov. 1, 1968). Reprinted in Sorin. Pop Art 68: Produits d’entretiens. Paris: L’Échoppe, 1996.

“Non dipingo combino soltanto le cose: Conversazione con Robert Rauschenberg.” La Fiera letterarria (Rome) 43, no. 49 (Dec. 5, 1968), cover and pp. 2–4.



Parinaud, André. “Un’intervista con Rauschenberg.” Le Arti (Milan) 19, nos. 1–2 (Jan.–Feb. 1969), pp. 25–26.



Lebeer, Irmeline. “Entretien avec Robert Rauschenberg.” Chroniques de l’art vivant (Paris), no. 43 (Oct. 1973), pp. 15–18.



Jouffroy, Alain. “Robert Rauschenberg: Où en êtes-vous avec le temps?” Zoom (Paris), no. 23 (March–April 1974), pp. 61–67.

Young, Joseph E. “Pages and Fuses: An Extended View of Robert Rauschenberg.” Print Collector’s Newsletter (New York) 5, no. 2 (May–June 1974), pp. 25–30.



Chieco, Giuseppe. “Dai Combine paintings ai Jammers.” Le Arti (Milan) 26, no. 3 (March 1976), pp. 47–50.

McKendry, Maxime de la Falaise. “Robert Rauschenberg Talks to Maxime de la Falaise McKendry.” Interview (New York) 6, no. 5 (May 1976), pp. 34, 36.

Ballatore, Sandy. “The Mid-Seventies Rauschenberg: For the Joy of It.” Artweek (Oakland) 7, no. 30 (Sept. 11, 1976), pp. 1, 16.

Forgey, Benjamin. “He’s Pushing Equal Rights for Artists.” Washington Star (Washington, D.C.), Nov. 5, 1976, sec. A, pp. 1, 6.



Scavullo, Francesco. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Scavullo with Bob Colacello and Séan Byrnes. Scavullo on Men, pp. 156–59. New York: Random House, 1977.

Gruen, John. “Robert Rauschenberg: An Audience of One.” Artnews (New York) 76, no. 2 (Feb. 1977), pp. 44–48. Revised and reprinted as “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Gruen. The Artist Observed: Twenty-Eight Interviews with Contemporary Artists, pp. 260–72. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1991.



“Vancouver: A Conversation Between Robert Rauschenberg and Arthur Perry.” Artmagazine (Toronto) 10, no. 41 (Nov.–Dec. 1978), pp. 31–35.



Diamonstein, Barbaralee. “Robert Rauschenberg and Leo Castelli.” In Diamonstein. Inside New York’s Art World, pp. 305–15. New York: Rizzoli, 1979.



Harmel, Mark. “Rauschenberg.” Sanibel-Captiva Islander (Fla.), April 15, 1980, sec. B, pp. 1–4.



Statement in Billy Klüver. On Record: Eleven Artists 1963, pp. 40–45. New York: Experiments in Art and Technology, 1981. Transcript of Record of Interviews with Artists Participating in The Popular Image Exhibition, Washington Gallery of Modern Art, Washington, D.C., April 18–June 2, 1963. 33 1/3-rpm phonograph record. Interviews by Henry Geldzahler, recorded and edited by Billy Klüver in collaboration with Washington Gallery of Modern Art.

Sayag, Alain. “Entretien avec R. Rauschenberg à propos de ses photographies.” (Jan. 9, 1981) Translated by Didier Pemerlein. In Rauschenberg Photographe, unpaginated. Exh. cat. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou and Éditions Herscher, 1981. Reprinted in Robert Rauschenberg Photographs. New York: Pantheon Books; London: Thames and Hudson, 1981. Reprinted in Robert Rauschenberg fotografia. Exh. cat. Forte di Belvedere, Florence. Florence: Alinari, 1982.

Eliopoulou-Rogan, Dora. “Rauschenberg: The Artist with Infinite Possibilities.” Kathimerini (Athens), Aug. 23–24, 1981, p. 13 (in Greek).

Garrels, Gary. “An Interview with Robert Rauschenberg.” Art New England (Boston) 2, no. 10 (Nov. 1981), p. 3.

Weiss, Marjorie. “Lowcountry Through the Eyes of an Artist.” News and Courier-Evening Post (Charleston, S.C.), Nov. 8, 1981, sec. E, p. 3.



de Sercey, Arnaud. “Rauschenberg: photographe.” Arts (Paris), no. 62 (April 23, 1982), p. 3.

Artner, Alan G. “Rauschenberg: Collaborating again, then off to See the World.” Chicago Tribune, Nov. 14, 1982, sec. 6, pp. 22–23.

Millet, Catherine, and Myriam Solomon. “Robert Rauschenberg à travers le monde.” Art Press (Paris), no. 65 (Dec. 1982), pp. 4–7.



de Smecchia, Muni. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Vogue Italia (Milan) (Feb. 1983), pp. 402–07.

Raedeke, Paul. “Interview with Rauschenberg.” Photo Metro (San Francisco) 2, no. 13 (Oct. 1983), pp. 16–17.



Tōno, Yoshiaki. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Chatting with Artists, pp. 155–86 (in Japanese). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1984.

Shewey, Don. “‘We Collaborated by Postcards’: An Interview with Robert Rauschenberg.” Theatre Crafts (New York) 18, no. 4 (April 1984), pp. 36–38, 72–75. Accessed Sept. 15, 2014.

Eldridge, John. “One Big Painter.” Miami News, May 4, 1984, sec. C, pp. 1, 10.

Huser, France. “L’Homme de Captiva Island.” Le Nouvel Observateur (Paris), no. 1020 (May 25, 1984), pp. 90–91. Reprinted in Robert Rauschenberg, p. 66. Exh. cat. Paris: Le Dernier Terrain Vague and Galerie Fabien Boulakia, 1990.



Black, L. D. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Splash (Sarasota, Fla.) (May 1985), cover and pp. 24–28.

Sommer, Waldemar. “Rauschenberg, el gozo creador.” La Prensa (Santiago, Chile), Aug. 23, 1985, sec. B, p. 1.



Rauschenberg, Robert, and Yoshiaki Tōno. “(Tying work to elephants: about the ROCI project).” In Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange: ROCI JAPAN, pp. 7–11 (in Japanese). Exh. cat. Tokyo: Setagaya Museum of Art, 1986.

Bonesteel, Michael. “Art Press Review [Rauschenberg on Nightline with Ted Koppel, Aug. 9, 1985].” New Art Examiner (Chicago) 13, no. 9 (May 1986), pp. 15–16.



“Intervista con Michele Bonuomo.” In Robert Rauschenberg: Neapolitan Glut, unpaginated. Exh. cat. Naples: Lucio Amelio, 1987.

Rose, Barbara. Rauschenberg. English and German editions. New York: Vintage Books; Cologne: Kiepenheuer and Witsch, 1987.

Bashaw, Maureen. “Artist Spills His ‘Gluts.’” Fort Myers News-Press (Fla.), March 26, 1987, sec. D, pp. 1, 9.



“Rauschenberg Responds: ‘Quarter Mile Project’ Controversy at Met.” Cover (New York) 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1988), p. 7.



“Art Is the Way to Mutual Understanding.” Iskusstvo (Moscow) (June 1989), p. 52.



Daix, Pierre. “Gommer, c’est encore peindre.” (From television broadcast “Désir des arts,” June 3, 1984. Produced by Antenne 2, Paris.) In Robert Rauschenberg, pp. 67–69. Exh. cat. Paris: Le Dernier Terrain Vague and Galerie Fabien Boulakia, 1990.

“Robert Rauschenberg.” (Sept. 13, 1989) In Art Meets Science and Spirituality in a Changing Economy, pp. 38–47. The Hague: SDU Publishers, 1990.

Fishman, Ted C. “The Eyes of Texas.” Newcity (Chicago), Oct. 25, 1990.

Taylor, Paul. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Interview (New York) 20, no. 12 (Dec. 1990), pp. 142–47. Revised and reprinted, Interview 38, no. 6 (Aug. 2008), p. 130.



Rauschenberg, Robert, and Donald Saff. “A Conversation about Art and ROCI.” In Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange, pp. 155–79. Exh. cat. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1991.

Maxwell, Douglas. “Rauschenberg.” Art Line (London) 5, no. 4 (March–April 1991), cover and pp. 8–14.

Visconti, Andrea. “Come sono Pop Fidel e il Dalai Lama!” L’Espresso (Rome) 37, nos. 47–48 (Dec. 1, 1991), pp. 154–55, 157.



Byrne, David. “Eco-Art.” Self (New York) 14, no. 6 (June 1992), pp. 144–49.

Martins, Marília. “O lixeiro das artes plásticas.” Jornal do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro), June 9, 1992, sec. B, p. 1.



“Robert Rauschenberg.” In Mark Rosenthal. Artists at Gemini G.E.L.: Celebrating the Twenty-Fifth Year, pp. 142–58. Exh. cat. Newport Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, Calif. New York: Harry N. Abrams in association with Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles, 1993.



Turrell, Julia Brown. “Talking to Robert Rauschenberg.” In Rauschenberg Sculpture, pp. 49–83. Exh. cat. Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, 1995.



Espanet, Luisa. “Robert Rauschenberg: futuro è il villaggio globale.” Madame Class Figaro (Milan) 2, no. 9 (Sept. 1996), pp. 38–39.

Madra, Beral. “Söyleşi: Beral Madra—Robert Rauschenberg.” Arredamento Dekorasyon (Istanbul), no. 84 (Sept. 1996), pp. 40, 42.

McKenna, Kristine. “Extra Sensory Expression.” Los Angeles Times, Nov. 24, 1996, Calendar, pp. 3, 81.

Turner, Elisa. “Rauschenberg Speaks on Rauschenberg, the Mystery of Boxes, Working with Motion.” Miami Herald, April 28, 1996, sec. I, p. 3.



Müller, Dorothee. “Ich bin ein aktiver Voyeur.” Süddeutsche Zeitung (Munich), March 22–23, 1997, p. 13.

“Liebe lag einfach in der Luft.” Der Spiegel (Hamburg), no. 14/1997 (March 31, 1997), pp. 194–96.

Kaufman, Jason Edward. “Interview: Robert Rauschenberg.” Art Newspaper (London), no. 73 (Sept. 1997), p. 17.

Barber, Lynn. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Observer Life Magazine (London), Oct. 26, 1997, pp. 6–12. 

Hirsch, Faye. “Weatherman: Robert Rauschenberg’s Ground Rules Series.” On Paper (New York) 2, no. 2 (Nov.–Dec. 1997), cover and pp. 10–15.



Hüllenkremer, Marie. “Ich hasse den Begriff Pop Art.” Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger (Cologne), June 23, 1998.

Schroeder, Annette. “Kunst des Überlebens.” Kölnische Rundschau (Cologne), June 23, 1998.

Baker, Kenneth. “Rauschenberg’s Reality.” San Francisco Chronicle, Aug. 20, 1998, sec. E, pp. 1, 4. 

“Robert Rauschenberg: Künstler zu sein ist ein Handicap.” Art (Hamburg) (Sept. 1998), pp. 16–25.

Marlow, Tim. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Tate (London), no. 16 (Winter 1998), pp. 42–47.           



Interview by Gary Garrels, Walter Hopps, David A. Ross, and Peter Samis, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, May 6, 1999. Transcript, Rauschenberg Research Project, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Accessed Feb. 16, 2018.

Brown, Trisha, and Robert Raushenberg. “Freudentänzer.” Vogue Deutsch (Munich) (July 1999), pp. 154–60.



Turner, Tracy Zollinger. “The Art World’s Most Likeable Genius: Robert Rauschenberg.” Dialogue (Akron, Ohio) 23, no. 4 (July–Aug. 2000), pp. 18–21.



Sylvester, David. “Robert Rauschenberg (1964).” In Sylvester. Interviews with American Artists, pp. 131–42. London: Chatto and Windus, 2001.



Schmerler, Sarah. “3 Questions for Robert Rauschenberg.” Time Out New York, no. 392 (April 3–10, 2003), p. 6.

Lobel, Michael. “Sign Language.” Artforum (New York) 42, no. 2 (Oct. 2003), p. 131.



Costantini, Costanzo. “Rauschenberg: ‘Io a Roma nel ’52 povero e in cerca di gloria.’” Il Messaggero (Rome), Feb. 29, 2004, p. 25.

Codognato, Mario, and Mirta d’Argenzio. “Interview with Robert Rauschenberg.” In Rauschenberg, pp. 75–100 (in English and Italian). Exh. cat. Ferrara: Galleria d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Palazzo dei Diamanti, 2004.

Solomon, Deborah. “Growing Old, Artfully.” New York Times Magazine, Feb. 15, 2004, p. 13.

Spagnesi, Licia. “Il Leone d’oro? Tutti erano inorriditi. L’unico felice ero io.” Arte (Milan), no. 368 (April 2004), pp. 45–46.



Rauschenberg: In the Gap Between, Entretiens avec Robert Rauschenberg. Paris: Archibooks, 2006. With interviews by Jean Daive, June 23, 2005; Emmanuelle Lequeux, June 24, 2005; and Henri-François Debailleux.

Brooks, Rosetta. “Rauschenberg: Round the Block Once or Twice.” Modern Painters (London) (Dec. 2005–Jan. 2006), cover and pp. 70–75.



Rauterberg, Hanno. “Ich habe meinen Himmel.” Die Zeit (Hamburg), Jan. 12, 2006, pp. 43–44. Revised and reprinted as “Rauschenberg il rigattiere,” L’Espresso (Rome) (Feb. 23, 2006), pp. 116–20. Translated by Elisabetta Horvat.

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Hermansen, Tom. “De troede, at jeg var evnesvag.” Jyllands-Posten (Viby J, Denmark), May 5, 2006, Kultur, pp. 7–9.

Broida, Gisèle Galante. “Paris accueille Robert Rauschenberg.” Paris Match, no. 2995 (Oct. 18, 2006), pp. 40–41. 

Thon, Ute. “Ich brauche Unsicherheit.” Art (Hamburg) (Dec. 2006), pp. 42–53.



Lind, Ingela. “Jag ser skönhet överallt.” Dagens Nyheter (Stockholm), Feb. 11, 2007, Kultur, cover and pp. 6–7.





Adler, Edward Jerome. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In “American Painting and the Vietnam War,” pp. 293–336. PhD diss., New York University, 1986.

Auricchio, Laura. “Lifting the Veil: Robert Rauschenberg’s Thirty-Four Drawings for Dante’s Inferno and the Commercial Homoerotic Imagery of 1950s America.” In The Gay ’90s: Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Formations in Queer Studies, edited by Thomas Foster, Carol Siegel, and Ellen E. Berry, pp. 119–54. Genders 26. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Babington, Jaklyn. Stoned Moon: Robert Rauschenberg. Brochure. Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 2010.

Becker, Anne-Grit. Cy Twombly und Robert Rauschenberg: Bilder im Prozess. München: Edition Metzel, 2020.

Bijvoet, Margaretha. “Art as Inquiry (Kunst als onderzoek): Interdisciplinary Aspects in American Art after 1965.” PhD diss., Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam, 1994.

Bois, Yve-Alain. Robert Rauschenberg: Currents. Brochure. New York: Peter Freeman, 2011.

Bolmeier, Jane. “Response and Documentation: Aesthetic Inquiry Relevant to Selected Works of Robert Rauschenberg.” EdD diss., New York University, 1984.

Brendel, Maria Lydia. “Reconnecting with Rubens—Neo-Allegorists: Robert Rauschenberg, Peter Dressler, Jean-Luc Godard.” In “Allegorical Truth-Telling via the Feminine Baroque: Rubens’ Material Reality, Reframing Het Pelsken,” pp. 112–40. PhD diss., McGill University, Montreal, 1999.

Brown, Sienna Elizabeth. “The Lithographs of Robert Rauschenberg.” PhD diss., Emory University, Atlanta, 2010.

Buchloh, Benjamin H. D. “Richter, Rauschenberg, and Photography.” In “Gerhard Richter: Painting after the Subject of History,” pp. 52–57. PhD diss., City University of New York, 1994.

Cabutti, Lucio. “Il Rinascimento di Rauschenberg.” Arte (Milan), no. 133 (Sept. 1983), pp. 62–67.

Calas, Nicolas. “Artists: Robert Rauschenberg.” In Calas. Art in the Age of Risk and Other Essays, pp. 169–93. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1968.

Carpenter, Elizabeth. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Joan Rothfuss and Carpenter. Bits and Pieces Put Together to Present a Semblance of a Whole: Walker Art Center Collections, pp. 479–81. Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 2005.

Cathala, Agnès. “Rauschenberg: Mimétisme et création.” PhD diss., Université de Toulouse–Le Mirail, France, 1993.

Contreras, Carmen Palomero. “Aspectos indiciales en la obra de R. Rauschenberg: Reflexiones sobre la fotografía para entender su creación plástica.” PhD diss., Universidad del País Vasco, Spain, 1999.

Considine, Liam Burlee. “Painted Mythologies.” In “New Realisms: Pop Art in France, 1962–1968,” pp. 53–96. PhD diss., New York University, 2012.

Craft, Catherine. Robert Rauschenberg. London: Phaidon, 2013.

Crow, Thomas. “Southern Boys Go to Europe: Rauschenberg, Twombly and Johns in the 1950s.” In Jasper Johns to Jeff Koons: Four Decades of Art from the Broad Collections, pp. 44–61. Exh. cat. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2001.

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Davidson, Susan, and David White, eds. Robert Rauschenberg: Photographs 1949–1962. New York: D.A.P., 2011. With essay by Nicholas Cullinan.

Davis, Douglas. “Robert Rauschenberg: Technology as Nature.” In Davis. Art and the Future: A History/Prophecy of the Collaboration Between Science, Technology and Art, pp. 141–45. New York: Praeger, 1973.

Dickerman, Leah. Rauschenberg: Canyon. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2013.

Doyle, Eileen R. “Art in the Mirror: Reflection in the Work of Rauschenberg, Richter, Graham and Smithson.” PhD diss., Ohio State University, Columbus, 2004.

Farmer, John Alan. “Screens/Robert Rauschenberg.” In “Art into Television, 1960–1965,” pp. 64–125. PhD diss., Columbia University, New York, 1998.

Feinstein, Roni. “Random Order: The First Fifteen Years of Robert Rauschenberg’s Art, 1949–1964.” PhD diss., New York University, 1990.

———. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In A Life of Collecting: Victor and Sally Ganz, edited by Michael Fitzgerald, pp. 136–57. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1998.

———. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Ace of 1962: An Interpretation.” In A Fine Regard: Essays in Honor of Kirk Varnedoe, edited by Patricia G. Berman and Gertje R. Utley, pp. 234–247. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 2008.

———. “Robert Rauschenberg: Engaging the Everyday.” In San Francisco Museum of Modern Art: Seventy-Five Years of Looking Forward, pp. 145–51. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 2009. 

Fenton, James. “Rauschenberg: The Voracious Ego.” In Fenton. Leonardo’s Nephew: Essays on Art and Artists, pp. 216–26, 265. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998.

Fine, Ruth E. “’Round the Clock/’Round the World: Robert Rauschenberg.” In Gemini G.E.L.: Art and Collaboration, pp. 105–24. Exh. cat. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art; New York: Abbeville Press, 1984.

Fineberg, Jonathan. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being, pp. 176–86. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1995.

Folland, Thomas Frederick. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Queer Modernism: Decoration, Theatricality and Camp in the Combines, 1953–59.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2010.

Forge, Andrew. Rauschenberg. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1969. Offprint of text published by Abrams, 1972. Condensed version printed as Rauschenberg. New York: Harry N. Abrams for Meridian Books, 1978.

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Fugelso, Karl. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Inferno Illuminations.” In Postmodern Medievalisms, edited by Richard Utz and Jesse G. Swan, pp. 47–66. Studies in Medievalism 13. Rochester, N.Y.: Boydell and Brewer, 2005.

Geiger, Melissa S. “Robert Rauschenberg’s ‘Oracle,’ ‘Soundings,’ and ‘Carnal Clocks’: A Socio-Historical Critique.” PhD diss., Pennsylvania State University, State College, 2005.

Getlein, Mark. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Getlein and Annabel Howard. Art Visionaries, pp. 164–67. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016.

Gilmour, Pat. “Tyler on the West Coast 1963–1983: Robert Rauschenberg.” In Ken Tyler, Master Printer, and the American Print Renaissance, pp. 47–53. New York: Hudson Hills Press, in association with Australian National Gallery, Canberra, 1986.

Glueck, Grace. “Rauschenberg at 65, with All Due Immodesty.” New York Times, Dec. 16, 1990, sec. 2, pp. 47, 49.

Goodyear, Anne Collins. “Art, Technology, and the American Space Program, 1962–1972” and “Billy Klüver and the Foundation of Experiments in Art and Technology.” In “The Relationship of Art to Science and Technology in the United States, 1957–1971: Five Case Studies,” pp. 19–79 and 164–234. PhD diss., University of Texas, Austin, 2002.

Green, Jonathan. “Robert Rauschenberg: The Found Image.” In Green. American Photography: A Critical History, 1945 to the Present, pp. 130–36. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984.

Guagliumi, Arthur Robert. “Robert Rauschenberg: Additional Dimensions.” In “Assemblage Art: Origins and Sources,” pp. 108–20, see also 150–53. EdD diss., Columbia University Teachers College, New York, 1990.

Hamilton, Jaimey. “Strategies of Excess: The Postwar Assemblages of Alberto Burri, Robert Rauschenberg, and Arman.” PhD diss., Boston University, 2006.

Hapgood, Susan. Neo-Dada: Redefining Art, 1958–1962. New York: Rizzoli, 1994.

Harmon, Louise. “Photography and the Visual Arts/Four Strategies of Appropriation.” In “The Appropriation of Photographic Images in Works of Art: Legal and Aesthetic Issues Inherent in the Conflict Between Modernism and Postmodernism,” pp. 51–104. PhD diss., Columbia University, New York, 1998.

Hickey, Dave. “Rauschenberg’s Sanity.” In Pop Art: The John and Kimiko Powers Collection, pp. 28–33. Exh. cat. New York: Gagosian Gallery, 2001.

Hillman, Susanne Naima. “Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Whitman and Billy Klüver: From ‘9 Evenings’ to ‘Experiments in Art and Technology.’” PhD diss., Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, 2007.

Hindry, Ann, ed. “1950–1957: The Ninth Street Show: Meeting with Rauschenberg.” In Claude Berri rencontre Leo Castelli (Claude Berri Meets Leo Castelli), pp. 25–30 (in French) and pp. 85–88 (in English). Paris: Renn, 1990.

Hopkins, David. “Duchamp’s Legacy: The Rauschenberg-Johns Axis.” In After Modern Art 1945–2000, pp. 37–64. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Huber, Hans Dieter. “Robert Rauschenberg: Die Hard, 1963.” In System und Wirkung: Rauschenberg—Twombly—Baruchello, Fragen der Interpretation und Bedeutung zeitgenössischer Kunst, ein systemtheoretischer Ansatz, pp. 99–126. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1989.

Hunter College, CUNY, Research Methods: Robert Rauschenberg. Robert Rauschenberg Foundation, Fall 2018. Accessed Oct. 9, 2020.

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———. Robert Rauschenberg: Works, Writings, Interviews. Barcelona: Ediciones Polígrafa, 2006.

Ikegami, Hiroko. The Great Migrator: Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2010.

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———. “ROCI East: Rauschenberg’s Encounters in China.” In East-West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship, edited by Lee Glazer, Amelia A. Goerlitz, and Cynthia Mill, pp. 176–89. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2012.

Jäger, Joachim. Das zivilisierte Bild: Robert Rauschenberg und seine Combine-Paintings der Jahre 1960 bis 1962. Klagenfurt, Austria: Ritter, 1999.

———. “Rauschenberg on Stage: Die Performance des Bildes.” In Do It Yourself, pp. 17–21. Exh. cat. Berlin: Hamburger Bahnhof, Museum für Gegenwart, 2005. 

———. “Robert Rauschenberg ‘Pink Door.’” In Warhol, Lichtenstein, Rauschenberg, Twombly, Kiefer aus der Sammlung Marx, pp. 76–77. Exh. cat. Baden-Baden, Germany: Museum Frieder Burda, 2007.  

Jeffreys, David. “Robert Rauschenberg: Art, Originality and Ethics.” PhD diss., University of Essex, U.K., 2001.

Johnson, Steven, ed. The New York Schools of Music and Visual Arts: John Cage, Morton Feldman, Edgard Varese, Willem de Kooning, Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Joseph, Branden Wayne. “Experimental Art: John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg and the Neo-Avant-Garde.” PhD diss., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1999.

———. “Pedestrian Colors: Robert Rauschenberg’s Collection.” In Celebrating Modern Art: The Anderson Collection, pp. 53–55.  Exh. cat. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 2000.

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Katz, Jonathan. “The Art of Code: Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg.” In Significant Others: Creativity and Intimate Partnership, edited by Whitney Chadwick and Isabelle de Courtivron, pp. 188–207. London: Thames and Hudson, 1993.

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———. “Opposition, Inc.: The Homosexualization of Postwar American Art.” PhD diss., Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1995.

Kostelanetz, Richard. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Kostelanetz. The Theatre of Mixed Means: An Introduction to Happenings, Kinetic Environments, and Other Mixed-Means Performances, pp. 78–99. New York: Dial Press, 1968.

———. “Robert Rauschenberg: Painting in Four Dimensions.” In Kostelanetz. Master Minds: Portraits of Contemporary American Artists and Intellectuals, pp. 251–69, see also pp. 357–59. Toronto: Macmillan, 1969.

Kotz, Mary Lynn. Rauschenberg, Art and Life. 1990. Rev. ed. New York: Harry N.  Abrams, 2004 and 2018.

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Krčma, Ed. Robert Rauschenberg. London: Tate Publishing, 2016.

———. Rauschenberg/Dante: Drawing a Modern Inferno. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017.

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Leadingham, Jo Greenland. “A Redirection in Post-War American Poetry and Art: Charles Olson and Robert Rauschenberg.” PhD diss., University of Kentucky, Lexington, 1992.

Leggio, James. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Bed and the Symbolism of the Body.” In Essays on Assemblage, edited by John Elderfield, pp. 78–117. Studies in Modern Art 2. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1992.

Loewen, Norma. “Experiments in Art and Technology: A Descriptive History of the Organization.” PhD diss., New York University, 1975.

Marchand, Bruno, ed. Robert Rauschenberg: Crítica e Obra de 1949 a 1974. Translated by Sofia Gomes and Mariana Sousa Moreira. Porto, Portugal: Colecção De Arte Contemporânea Público Serralves, 2008.

Mattison, Robert Saltonstall. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Masterworks in the Robert and Jane Meyerhoff Collection: Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, Ellsworth Kelly, and Frank Stella, pp. 97–136. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1995.

———. Robert Rauschenberg: Breaking Boundaries. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003.

McDonagh, Don. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In The Complete Guide to Modern Dance, pp. 449–51. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976.

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Mullin, Diane Alison. “Changing the Subject: Robert Rauschenberg and ‘the New American Art.’” PhD diss., Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., 1999.

O’Doherty, Brian. “Robert Rauschenberg: The Sixties.” In O’Doherty. American Masters: The Voice and the Myth, pp. 188–225. New York: Random House, 1973.

Pagnutti, Alana. Reception: The Radio-Works of Robert Rauschenberg and John Cage. London: Smith and Brown, 2016.

Parkinson, Gavin. Robert Rauschenberg and Surrealism: Art, “Sensibility” and War. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2023.

Pissarro, Joachim. Cézanne/Pissarro, Johns/Rauschenberg: Comparative Studies on Intersubjectivity in Modern Art. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

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Poor, Natasha. “Dirty Art: Reconsidering the Work of Robert Rauschenberg, Bruce Conner, Jay DeFeo, and Edward Kienholz.” PhD diss., City University of New York, 2007.

Prather, Marla. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In The Robert and Jane Meyerhoff Collection: 1945 to 1995, pp. 162–82. Exh. cat. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1996.

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Rauschenberg and Sweden: Essays, Documents, CommentsKonsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007).

Ritchie, Charles, ed. Gemini G.E.L. Online Catalogue Raisonné. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2004. Accessed Sept. 15, 2014.

Robert Rauschenberg: Minutiae. New York: Sotheby’s, 2003. With essay by Calvin Tomkins.

Robert Rauschenberg: Mirthday Man. Copenhagen: Faurschou, 2009. With essay by Mikael Wivel.

Robert Rauschenberg Photographs. New York: Pantheon Books; London: Thames and Hudson, 1981.

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Robert Rauschenberg: The Tower. New York: Christie’s, 2011. With essay by Paul Schimmel and previously published interview with Rauschenberg by David Sylvester (1964).

Rose, Barbara. Rauschenberg. English and German editions. New York: Vintage Books; Cologne: Kiepenheuer and Witsch, 1987.

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Saff, Donald J. “Robert Rauschenberg: współpraca jako sztuka i sztuka jako współpraca.” In Współczesna grafika amerykańska z kolekcji Torstena Lilji, pp. 188–95. Exh. cat. Warsaw: Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej Zachęta, 1999.

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Scheit, Stefanie. “Die Autonomie der choreographischen Elemente. Merce Cunningham, John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Charles Atlas, Nam June Paik, Stan Van Der Beek” and “‘I make order out of chaos, he makes chaos out of order.’ Trisha Brown und Robert Rauschenberg.” In Tanzen, Sehen, edited by Eva Schmidt and José Lebrero Stals, pp. 8–20 and 30–44. Exh. cat. Germany: Museum für Gegenwartskunst Siegen, 2007.

Scholz, Dieter. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Sammlung Marx im Hamburger Bahnhof, Museum für Gegenwart, Berlin, edited by Heiner Bastian, vol. 1, pp. 71–79. Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 1996.

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Silver, Kenneth E. “Modes of Disclosure: The Construction of Gay Identity and the Rise of Pop Art.” In Hand-Painted Pop: American Art in Transition, 1955–1962, pp. 179–203. Exh. cat. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art; New York: Rizzoli, 1992.

Sinclair, Sara, ed. Robert Rauschenberg: An Oral History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019.

Smith, Mark Lesly. “Image and Word in the Prints of Robert Rauschenberg, 1951–1981.” PhD diss., University of Texas, Austin, 1992.

Solomon, Alan. “Rauschenberg.” Photographs by Ugo Mulas. In New York: The New Art Scene, pp. 230–55. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1967.

Sparks, Esther. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Universal Limited Art Editions: A History and Catalogue, The First Twenty-Five Years, pp. 215–37, 430–67. Exh. cat. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago; New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1989.

Steinberg, Leo. Encounters with Rauschenberg (A Lavishly Illustrated Lecture). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. 

Takehana, Elise. “Burroughs/Rauschenberg: Text-Image/Image-Text.” In The Future of Text and Image: Collected Essays on Literary and Visual Conjunctures, edited by Ofra Amihay and Lauren Walsh, pp. 273–307. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2012.

Taki, Teizo. Robert Rauschenberg. Contemporary Great Masters 14. Tokyo: Kodansha Press, 1993. In Japanese.

Tallman, Susan. “Johns and Rauschenberg.” In Tallman. The Contemporary Print from Pre-Pop to Postmodern, pp. 33–48. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996.

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Tomkins, Calvin. Off the Wall: Robert Rauschenberg and the Art World of Our Time. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980. Revised and reprinted as Off the Wall: A Portrait of Robert Rauschenberg. New York: Picador, 2005.

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———. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Tomkins. The Bride and the Bachelors: The Heretical Courtship in Modern Art, pp. 189–237. New York: Viking Press, 1965.

  • Johnston, Jill. “Book Reviews: The Bride and the Bachelors, by Calvin Tomkins.” Arts Magazine (New York) 39, no. 9 (May–June 1965), p. 83.

Tōno, Yoshiaki. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In After Pollock, pp. 276–95 (in Japanese). Tokyo: Bijutsu Shuppan-sha, 1984.

Tunniclife, Wayne. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In John Kaldor Family Collection: Art Gallery of New South Wales, pp. 45–47. Sydney: Art Gallery of New South Wales, 2011.

Tyler, Kenneth E., and Rosamund Felsen. “Two Rauschenberg Paper Projects.” In Paper: Art and Technology, edited by Paulette Long, pp. 81–86. San Francisco: World Print Council, 1979.

Wainwright, Lisa Susan. “Reading Junk: Thematic Imagery in the Art of Robert Rauschenberg from 1952 to 1964.” PhD diss., University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, 1993.

———. "Robert Rauschenberg's Fabrics: Constructing Domestic Space." In Not at Home: The Suppression of Domesticity in Modern Art and Architecture, edited by Christopher Reed, pp. 193–205, 287–88. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1996.

Weinard, Chad Alan. “Combining Photography: Robert Rauschenberg and the Aesthetic of Memory.” In A Fine Regard: Essays in Honor of Kirk Varnedoe, edited by Patricia G. Berman and Gertje R. Utley, pp. 214–33. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 2008.

Wissmann, Jürgen. Robert Rauschenberg: Black Market. Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam, 1970. In German.

Wivel, Mikael. “Rauschenberg and Co.” In Pop Art from the Lilja Collection: Rauschenberg, Lichtenstein, Rosenquist, Dine, pp. 14–25. Exh. cat. Høvikodden, Norway: Henie Onstad Art Center, 1991.

Ye, Zhu, ed. “Beijing Theorists’ Reactions to the Art of Robert Rauschenberg.” Translated by Jiayun Zhuang. In Contemporary Chinese Art: Primary Documents, edited by Wu Hung and Joseph Newland, pp. 42-45. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2010. Originally published as “Beijing bufen lilunjia dui Laoshengbo zuopin de fanyin.” Zhongguo meishu bao (China), no. 22 (Dec. 21, 1985), p. 2. 

Young, Joan. “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Nancy Spector. Guggenheim Museum Collection A to Z. 2nd rev. ed., pp. 282–86. New York: Guggenheim Museum, 2005.

Zemter, Wolfgang. “Robert Rauschenberg: Untersuchungen zur Bildstruktur.” PhD diss., Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 1974.



Abadie, Daniel. “Les Images ‘gelées’ de Rauschenberg.” Art Press (Paris), no. 19 (July–Aug. 1975), pp. 16–17.

Adams, Brooks. “Salmigondis à la Rauschenberg.” Translated by Marie-France de Paloméra. Artstudio (Paris), no. 23 (Winter 1991), cover and pp. 56–67.

Alliata, Vicky. “Rauschenberg: I fossili della civiltà atomica.” Bolaffiarte (Turin) 5, no. 42 (Summer 1974), pp. 82–89.

Alloway, Lawrence. “Assembling a World Between Art and Life.” Second Coming Magazine (New York) 1, no. 4 (June 1962), pp. 50–52.

———. “The World Is a Painting: Rauschenberg.” Vogue (New York) 146, no. 7 (Oct. 15, 1965), pp. 100–103, 153–55, 157.

———. “Rauschenberg’s Graphics.” Art and Artists (London) 5, no. 6 (Sept. 1970), pp. 18–21.

Asbury, Edith Evans. “Artists’ ‘Bank’ to Aid Health Costs.” New York Times, Oct. 2, 1977, p. 48.

Ashton, Dore. “Plus ça change . . . ” Cimaise (Paris) 8, no. 1 (March–April 1961), pp. 50–59 (in English, French, German, and Spanish).

———. “Thirty-Four Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno.” Metro (Milan), no. 2 (1961), pp. 52–61 (in English, French, and Italian).

———. “The Collaboration Wheel: A Comment on Robert Rauschenberg’s Comment on Dante.” Arts and Architecture (Los Angeles) 80, no. 12 (Dec. 1963), pp. 10–11, 37.

———. “History Painter.” Artforum (New York) 36, no. 1 (Sept. 1997), pp. 99, 152.

Avgikos, Jan. “Rauschenberg’s Cyborgs.” Sculpture (Washington, D.C.) 15, no. 5 (May–June 1996), pp. 24–29.

Bader, Graham. “Rauschenberg’s Skin.” Grey Room (Cambridge, Mass.), no. 27 (Spring 2007), pp. 104–18.

Baker, R.C. “Robert Rauschenberg, 1925–2008.” Village Voice (New York), May 21, 2008, p. 47.

Ball, Edward. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Processed World.” View (Journal of Art, New York) 4, no. 1 (Jan. 1991), pp. 7–11.

Baranano, Kosme. “Trozos de Realidad.” El Mundo (Madrid), Nov. 21, 1998.

Barina, Antonella. “Robert Rauschenberg: La mia vita con Bob e la sua ultima scelta: farsi staccare la spina.” Il Venerdì di Repubblica (Rome), Oct. 17, 2008, pp. 98–102.

Barot, Rick. “Rauschenberg’s Bed.” Yale Review (New Haven, Conn.) 96, no. 1 (Jan. 2008), pp. 64–75.

Barricelli, Jean-Pierre. “The Conscious and the Subconscious: Rauschenberg and Dalí Face Dante.” Comparative Literature Studies (Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park) 24, no. 4 (1987), pp. 353–69.

Battiata, Mary. “Rauschenberg, the Art Explorer.” Washington Post, June 1, 1985, sec. D, pp. 1, 7.

Bean, Shawn. “Florida Artist Hall of Fame.” Florida International Magazine (Oct. 2005), pp. 114–99.

Behr, Manfred. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Florida Journal (Fort Myers) (July–Sept. 2000), cover and pp. 20–25 (in German).

Belcove, Julie L. “Old Master.” (New York) 29, no. 9 (Sept. 2000), pp. 502–07, 525. 

Bendiner, Kenneth. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Canyon.” Arts Magazine (New York) 56, no. 10 (June 1982), pp. 57–59.

———. “The Sins of the World.” Apollo (London) 164, no. 536 (Oct. 2006), pp. 56–61.

Bernstein, Roberta. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Rebus.” Arts Magazine (New York) 52, no. 5 (Jan. 1978), pp. 138–41.

Bernstock, Judith E. “A New Interpretation of Rauschenberg’s Imagery.” Pantheon (Munich) 46 (1988), pp. 149–64.

Bertrand, Valére. “‘Interview’ de Robert Rauschenberg.” Connaissance des arts (Paris), no. 642 (Oct. 2006), pp. 112–15.

Black, L. D. “Rauschenberg’s ROCI.” Splash (New York) (Feb. 1988), unpaginated.

Boaden, James. “Black Painting (with Asheville Citizen).” Art History (Association of Art Historians, London) 34, no. 1 (Feb. 2011), pp. 166–91.

Boatto, Alberto. “Rauschenberg: La celebrazione del presente.” In Pop Art in U.S.A., pp. 24–27 (in Italian). Milan: Lerici, 1967.

Bois, Yve-Alain. “Early Lead.” Artforum (New York) 36, no. 1 (Sept. 1997), pp. 97, 152.

———. “Pause: Les Cardboard Pieces de Robert Rauschenberg.” Cahiers du Musée national d’art moderne (Paris), no. 108 (Summer 2009), pp. 50–67. 

Bongard, Willi. “When Rauschenberg Won the Biennale.” Studio International (London) 175, no. 901 (June 1968), pp. 288–89.

Boyer, Kathryn. “Robert Rauschenberg and the American Postwar Political and Social Scene.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 92–106.

Brach, Paul. “Rauschenberg.” Scrap (New York), no. 2 (Dec. 23, 1960), p. 3.

Breerette, Genevieve. “Robert Rauschenberg, maître du collage universel.” Le Monde (Paris), Oct. 14, 1997, p. 30.

Brooks, Bonnie. “Leaving the Door Open.” Liner notes for Merce Cunningham Dance Company: Robert Rauschenberg Collaborations, pp. 4–21. San Francisco: Artpix, 2010. DVD.

Burkhardt, Dorothy. “An Artist Defying Tradition.” Philadelphia Inquirer, Dec. 25, 1983, sec. K, p. 15.

Burstein, Patricia. “In His Art and Life, Robert Rauschenberg Is a Man Who Steers His Own Daring Course.” People (New York) 13, no. 20 (May 19, 1980), pp. 99–100, 103–04.

Byrne, David. “Bob the Builder.” New York Times, May 16, 2008, sec. A, p. 23.

C., W. C. “Art and Technology Join in Formal Experiment.” Data Systems News (New York), no. 1 (Nov. 1967), p. 3.

Cage, John. “On Robert Rauschenberg, Artist, and His Work.” Metro (Milan), no. 2 (1961), pp. 36–51. Reprinted in Cage. Silence: Lectures and Writings by John Cage, pp. 98–108. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1961.

Calas, Nicolas. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Kulchur (New York) 4, no. 15 (Autumn 1964), cover and pp. 16–40. Reprinted as “Artists: Robert Rauschenberg.” In Calas. Art in the Age of Risk and Other Essays, pp. 169–93. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1968.

Carroll, Maurice. “Fire Damages Rauschenberg Art Here.” New York Times, Oct. 26, 1969, sec. 1, p. 79.

Casciani, Stefano, and Luigi Spignelli. “The Rauschenberg Blues.” Domus (Milan), no. 916 (July–Aug. 2008), pp. 85–89.

Castro, Jan Garden. “A New Sculptural Idiom: Robert Rauschenberg.” Sculpture (Washington, D.C.) 25, no. 7 (Sept. 2006), pp. 48–55.

Castro, Roberto Montero. “De la ilusión a la objetividad.” El Universal (Caracas), Oct. 20, 1985, sec. 4, pp. 1–2.

Cato, Robert. “Sources of Inspiration: Robert Rauschenberg.” Print (New York) 11, no. 1 (Feb.–March 1957), p. 27.

Cereceda, Miguel. “Rauschenberg.” Cuadernos del IVAM (Valencia), no. 3 (Spring 2005), pp. 50–61, 99–102.

Choay, Françoise. “Dada, Néo-Dada, et Rauschenberg.” Art International (Zurich) 5, no. 8 (Oct. 20, 1961), cover and pp. 82–84, 88.

Citacov, Marta. “Rauschenberg.” Photographs by Bruce Weber. L’Uomo Vogue (Milan), no. 284, pp. 80–89.

Constable, Rosalind. “Art Pops In: Europe Explodes as American Takes Prize.” Life (New York) 57, no. 2 (July 10, 1964), pp. 65–68.

Corbino, Marcia. “Robert Rauschenberg, Painter in Hiding.” Floridian (St. Petersburg Times), March 11, 1973, pp. 29–31.

———. “Zap! Robert Rauschenberg as Art World Superman.” Sarasota Journal (Fla.), Oct. 22, 1974, sec. A, p. 12.

Corlett, Mary Lee. “Places and Things: Robert Rauschenberg.” In Ruth E. Fine and Corlett. Graphicstudio: Contemporary Art from the Collaborative Workshop at the University of South Florida, pp. 231–58. Exh. cat. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1991.

Craft, Catherine. “Lost and Found.” Art in America (New York) 99, no. 10 (Nov. 2011), pp. 144–53.

———. “In Need of Repair: The Early Exhibition History of Robert Rauschenberg’s Combines.” Burlington Magazine (London) 154, no. 1308 (March 2012), pp. 191–97.

Crager, Jack. “The Environmental Portrait.” American Photo Magazine (New York) (March–April 2007), p. 59.

Cranshaw, Roger, and Adrian Lewis. “Re-Reading Rauschenberg.” Artscribe (London), no. 29 (June 1981), pp. 44–51.

Crow, Thomas. “This Is Now: Becoming Robert Rauschenberg.” Artforum (New York) 36, no. 1 (Sept. 1997), cover and pp. 94–96, 98, 100, 139, 142, 144, 152.

———. “Social Register.” Artforum (New York) 47, no. 1 (Sept. 2008), pp. 426–31, 484, 492.

Cullinan, Nicholas. “Double Exposure: Robert Rauschenberg’s and Cy Twombly’s Roman Holiday.” Burlington Magazine (London) 150, no. 1264 (July 2008), pp. 460–70.

———. “Vaporous Fantasies.” Tate Etc. (London), no. 23 (Autumn 2011), pp. 82–83.

Danto, Arthur C. “Art: RRyman.” Nation (New York) 257, no. 17 (Nov. 22, 1993), pp. 632–35.

Davidson, Susan. “The Century’s 25 Most Influential Artists: Unending Irreverence.” Artnews (New York) 98, no. 5 (May 1999), p. 147.

———. “Remembering Robert Rauschenberg (1928–2008).” American Art (Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.) 23, no. 1 (Spring 2009), pp. 116–19.

Davis, Douglas M. “The Enigmatic Mr. Rauschenberg: He Keeps American Art Adventurous.” National Observer (Washington, D.C.), Oct. 10, 1966, pp. 1, 17.

———. “Rauschenberg’s Recent Graphics.” Art in America (New York) 57, no. 4 (July–Aug. 1969), pp. 90–95.

———. “Artist of Everything.” Newsweek (New York) 88, no. 17 (Oct. 25, 1976), pp. 94–99.

Dezeuze, Anna. “Unpacking Cornell: Consumption and Play in the Work of Rauschenberg, Warhol and George Brecht.” Papers of Surrealism (University of Manchester, U.K.), no. 2 (Summer 2004). Accessed May 12, 2014.

Doran, Anne, and Walter Hopps. “Robert Rauschenberg: Here Comes Everybody.” Atlántica: revista de las artes (Las Palmas, Spain), no. 21 (1998), pp. 152–59.

Dorfles, Gillo. “Rauschenberg, o la sconfitta dell’‘obsolescence’/Rauschenberg, or Obsolescence Defeated.” Metro (Milan), no. 2 (1961), pp. 32–35 (in English and Italian).

Dorsey, John. “Rauschenberg’s ‘Bank Job’: ‘A Different Puzzle for Each Person.’” Baltimore Sun, Feb. 24, 1980, sec. D, pp. 1, 8.

Duffy, Jean. “Cultural Autobiography and Bricolage: Claude Simon and Robert Rauschenberg.” Word and Image (London) 13, no. 1 (Jan.–March 1997), pp. 92–101.

Durand, Régis. “Robert Rauschenberg: Des souvenirs sans nostalgie.” Art Press (Paris), no. 142 (Dec. 1989), pp. 20–25.

de la Durantaye, Leland. “Rummaging Through Rauschenberg’s Trash.” Modern Painters (London) 20, no. 6 (July–Aug. 2008), pp. 72–75.

Dypréau, Jean. “Rauschenberg.” XXe siècle (Paris) 25, no. 21 (May 1963), p. 145.

Eigo, Jim. “Trisha Brown and Robert Rauschenberg.” Dance Ink (New York) 5, no. 1 (Spring 1994), pp. 22–25.

Ennis, Michael. “The Return of the Native.” Texas Monthly (Austin) 26, no. 3 (March 1998), pp. 104–07, 121–22.

Evaul, William H. “Printmaking Ensuite with Rauschenberg, Rockburne, and LeWitt.” Print Review (New York), no. 14 (1981), pp. 70–73.

Everingham, Carol J. “Promoting World Peace Through Art.” Houston Post, Dec. 23, 1985, sec. C, p. 4.

Fahlström, Öyvind. “En gata full av presenter.” Konstrevy (Stockholm) 37, nos. 5–6 (1961), pp. 176–81. Reprinted as “A Street Full of Presents.” Translated by Kathryn Boyer. Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 119–26.

Feinstein, Rochelle; Sara Greenberger Rafferty; Mary Reid Kelley; Matt Saunders; Gedi Sibony; and Jessica Stockholder. “The Artist’s Artist: A Rauschenberg Symposium.” Art in America (New York) 105, no. 1 (Jan. 2017), pp. 44–53.

Feinstein, Roni. “The Unknown Early Robert Rauschenberg: The Betty Parsons Exhibition of 1951.” Arts Magazine (New York) 59, no. 5 (Jan. 1985), pp. 126–31.

———. “The Early Work of Robert Rauschenberg: The White Paintings, the Black Paintings, and the Elemental Sculptures.” Arts Magazine (New York) 61, no. 1 (Sept. 1986), cover and pp. 28–37.

———. “Rauschenberg: Solutions for a Small Planet.” Art in America (New York) 86, no. 2 (Feb. 1998), cover and pp. 66–79.

Finch, Charlie. “Rauschenberg/Warhol.” Artnet, May 14, 2008. Accessed May 12, 2014.

Fineberg, Jonathan. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Reservoir.” American Art (National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.) 12, no. 1 (Spring 1998), pp. 84–88.

Folland, Tom. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Queer Modernism: The Early Combines and Decoration.” Art Bulletin (College Art Association, New York) 92, no. 4 (Dec. 2010), pp. 348–65.

Forge, Andrew. “Cross Currents.” Studio International (London) 175, no. 899 (April 1968), p. 187–91.

Freeman, Jack. “Rauschenberg: The Art of Changing Minds.” Earth Times (New York) 5, no. 30 (Sept. 20, 1993), p. 11.

Fujieda, Teruo; Atsushi Miyakawa; and Yoshiaki Tōno. Three feature articles on Rauschenberg. Bijutsu Techo (Tokyo) (Feb. 1968), pp. 44–67 (in Japanese).

Gamarekian, Barbara. “Rauschenberg Carrying His Art to Many Lands.” New York Times, Aug. 3, 1985, p. 9.

Gandini, Manuela. “Il via con Rauschenberg, caposcuola della pop art.” Il Giorno (Milan), Jan. 30, 1998, sec. M, p. 41.

Genocchio, Benjamin. “Rauschenberg: Autumn of an Art Patriarch.” New York Times, June 27, 2004, sec. CT, p. 8.

Ginsburg, Susan. “Rauschenberg’s Dialogue.” Print Collector’s Newsletter (New York) 6, no. 6 (Jan.–Feb. 1976), pp. 152–55.

Gladston, Paul. “ROCI China and the Prospects of ‘Post-West’ Contemporaneity.” The Journal of Transcultural Studies (Heidelberg, Germany) 11, no. 2 (March 2021), pp. 150–77. 

Glueck, Grace. “Art Notes: Adventures Abroad.” New York Times, June 6, 1965, sec. 2, p. 15.

———. “Castelli Donates ‘Bed’ to the Modern.” New York Times, May 10, 1989, sec. C, p. 15.

Gluibizzi, Amanda. “Portrait of the Artist(s) as a Portrait of Iris Clert.” Word and Image (London) 30, no. 4 (Oct.–Dec. 2014), pp. 455–63.

Goldman, Judith. “New Editions: Robert Rauschenberg.” Artnews (New York) 74, no. 3 (March 1975), pp. 59–60.

Goldstein, Carl. “Teaching Modernism: What Albers Learned in the Bauhaus and Taught to Rauschenberg, Noland, and Hesse.” Arts Magazine (New York) 54, no. 4 (Dec. 1979), pp. 108–16.

Grasso, Sebastiano. “Qualcosa di nuovo, per favore, maestro.” Corriere della Sera, Feb. 2, 1998, p. 23.

Gratz, Roberta B. “Artist’s a Study in Blue at Scull’s SRO Auction.” New York Post, Oct. 19, 1973, pp. 3, 16.

Gridley, Rebecca. “Robert Rauschenberg: The Art of Collaboration and Excavation.” Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin (New Haven, Conn.) (2008), pp. 106–10.

Gruen, John. “Painter Dancing in the Dark.” Sunday Herald Tribune Magazine (New York), Jan. 2, 1966, pp. 22, 34.

———. “Robert Rauschenberg: An Audience of One.” Artnews (New York) 76, no. 2 (Feb. 1977), pp. 44–48. Revised and reprinted as “Robert Rauschenberg.” In The Artist Observed: Twenty-Eight Interviews with Contemporary Artists, pp. 261–72. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1991.

Grundberg, Andy. “Another Side of Rauschenberg.” New York Times Magazine, Oct. 18, 1981, pp. 42–46, 113, 114, 117.

Gunnarsson, Annika. “Sidetrack—Robert Rauschenberg.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 60–71.

Hall, James. “Crime Scenes: Robert Rauschenberg’s Peculiar Interest in the Pre-Raphaelites.” Times Literary Supplement (London), no. 5269 (March 26, 2004), pp. 3–4. 

Hayden, Hans. “Transition Points: Notes on the Interplay Between Art and Art History in the Time of Visual Culture.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 78–91.

Healy, Charlotte. “A Radical Disregard for the Preservation of Art: Robert Rauschenberg’s Elemental Paintings.” Interventions (Columbia University, New York) 4, no. 1 (Jan. 2015). Accessed May 27, 2015.

Herrera, Hayden. “Rauschenberg’s Scroll.” Connoisseur (New York) 213, no. 851 (Jan. 1983), pp. 57–61.

Hess, Thomas B. “Rauschenberg: Choose a Chance.” New York 7, no. 35 (Sept. 9, 1974), pp. 60–61.

Hickey, Dave. “Open Charms.” Artforum (New York) 36, no. 1 (Sept. 1997), pp. 101, 152.

Hirsch, Faye. “Weatherman: Robert Rauschenberg’s Ground Rules Series.” On Paper (New York) 2, no. 2 (Nov.–Dec. 1997), cover and pp. 10–15.

Hogan, Michael. “Bill Clinton Remembers Robert Rauschenberg.” Vanity Fair Daily, Oct. 29, 2008. Accessed Sept. 15, 2014.

Holborn, Mark. “Robert Rauschenberg: Photographs.” Creative Camera (London), no. 203 (Nov. 1981), pp. 288–91.

Hopps, Walter. “Seven Works on Paper.” Grand Street (New York), no. 38 (Autumn 1991), p. 72.

———. “Robert Rauschenberg: Holiday Ruse (Night Shade), 1991.” Artforum (New York) 38, no. 9 (May 2000), pp. 154–55.

Hsu, Helen. “Tripping on Stoned Moon.” Foam (Amsterdam) no. 47 (2017), pp. 176, 193.

———. “Undrinking the River Lethe or Remembering to Subvert: Two Drawings by Robert Rauschenberg.” Master Drawings (New York) 57, no. 2 (Summer 2019), pp. 219–36.

Huck, Christopher C. “The Empty-Sublime: Considering Robert Rauschenberg in a Comparative Context.” Comparative and Continental Philosophy (Leeds, U.K.) 15, nos. 1–2 (June 2023), pp. 71–83. 

Hughes, Robert. “Enfant Terrible at 50.” Time (New York) 105, no. 4 (Jan. 27, 1975), pp. 60–61.

———. “The Most Living Artist.” Time (New York) 108, no. 22 (Nov. 29, 1976), cover and pp. 54–62.

———. “My Friend Robert Rauschenberg.” New York Review of Books Daily, Nov. 14, 2015. Accessed Jan. 16, 2020.

Huisking, Charlie. “Artist’s Canvas Stretches around the World.” Sarasota Herald-Tribune (Fla.), March 17, 1985, sec. C, pp. 1, 13.

Imdahl, Georg. “Früh auf dem Gipfel seiner Möglichkeiten.” Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger (Cologne), Oct. 21, 2005, p. 24.

Ives, Colta. “Looking at Prints: Razorback Country.” Artnews (New York) 81, no. 7 (Sept. 1982), pp. 62–63.

Jobey, Liz with Michael Craig-Martin, Antony Gormley, Philippe Parreno, David Salle, and Carolee Schneemann. “In the Gap Between Art and Life.” FT Weekend Magazine (London), Nov. 19–20, 2016, pp. 52–56.

Johnson, Ellen H. “The Image Duplicators: Lichtenstein, Rauschenberg and Warhol.” Canadian Art (Toronto) 23, no. 1 (Jan. 1966), pp. 12–19.

Johnson, Janis Lyn. “The Last Free Enterpriser.” Gulfshore Life (Naples, Fla.) (Summer 1992), pp. 54–57, 62–63.

Johnson, Philip. “Young Artists at the Fair and at Lincoln Center.” Art in America (New York) 52, no. 4 (Aug. 1964), pp. 112–27.

Jones, Jonathan. “Robert Rauschenberg: Love and Loss in America.” Guardian (London), Feb. 9, 2013.

Joseph, Branden W. “White on White.” Critical Inquiry (Chicago) 27, no. 1 (Autumn 2000), pp. 90–121. Revised and reprinted as “Blanc sur blanc.” Translated by Béatrice Trotignon. Cahiers du Musée national d’art moderne (Paris), no. 71 (Spring 2000), pp. 4–31.  

———. “‘A Duplication Containing Duplications’: Robert Rauschenberg’s Split Screens.” October (Cambridge, Mass.), no. 95 (Winter 2001), pp. 3–27. 

———. “The Gap and the Frame.” October (Cambridge, Mass.), no. 117 (Summer 2006), pp. 44–70.

———. “BL(U)BROB TRRRCRRAATCHURBUP: Bob Rauschenberg in Swedish Bird Call.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 6–26.

———. “Media Player.” Artforum (New York) 47, no. 1 (Sept. 2008), pp. 438–41, 492.

Jouffroy, Alain. “Rauschenberg ou le déclic mental.” Aujourd’hui (Paris), no. 38 (Sept. 1962), pp. 22–23.

———. “R. Rauschenberg.” L’Oeil (Paris), no. 113 (May 1964), pp. 28–35, 68–69.

———. “Rauschenberg et la liberté d’indifférence.” XXe siècle (Paris) 35, no. 40 (June 1973), pp. 125–31.

Kachurin, Pamela. “The ROCI Road to Peace: Robert Rauschenberg, Perestroika, and the End of the Cold War.” Journal of Cold War Studies (Cambridge, Mass.) 4, no. 1 (Winter 2002), pp. 27–43.

Kappler, Frank. “Dante: The Divine Poet’s Totality.” Life (New York) 59, no. 25 (Dec. 17, 1965), pp. 38–64. With commissioned artwork by Rauschenberg, Drawing for Dante’s 700th Birthday (1965).

Karshan, Donald H. “Graphics ’70: Robert Rauschenberg.” Art in America (New York) 58, no. 6 (Nov.–Dec. 1970), pp. 48–51. With offset lithograph by Rauschenberg, Wart (1970), edition of 65,000.

Katz, Jonathan. “Rauschenberg’s Honeymoon.” Art/Text (Los Angeles), no. 61 (May–July 1998), pp. 44–47.

———. “Reading Watchman Through the Archive.” Archives of American Art Journal (Washington, D.C.) 46, nos. 3–4 (Autumn 2007), pp. 29–35.

———. “‘Committing the Perfect Crime’: Sexuality, Assemblage, and the Postmodern Turn in American Art.” Art Journal (College Art Association, New York) 67, no. 1 (Spring 2008), pp. 38–53.

———. “Lovers and Divers: Interpictorial Dialog in the Work of Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg.” Accessed March 6, 2013.

Katz, Vincent. “A Genteel Iconoclasm.” Tate Etc. (London), no. 8 (Autumn 2006), pp. 38–41.

Keats, Jonathon. “Manifesto.” Artweek (Palo Alto, Calif.) 39, no. 7 (Sept. 2008), pp. 4, 24.

———. “A Reluctant Prophet.” Art and Antiques (New York) 31, no. 11 (Nov. 2008), pp. 128–34.

Key, Donald. “Leader of the ‘Pop Bottle’ School.” Milwaukee Journal, May 29, 1960.

Kimmelman, Michael. “The Irrepressible Ragman of Art.” New York Times, Aug. 27, 2000, sec. 2, pp. 1, 26. Revised and reprinted as “The Secret of My Excess.” Guardian (London), Sept. 7, 2000, G2, pp. 12–13.

———. “Robert Rauschenberg, Who Redefined American Art, Dies at 82.” New York Times, May 14, 2008, sec. A, pp. 1, 20.

Klüver, Billy. “Teknologi för livet.” Konstrevy (Stockholm) 42, no. 2 (1966), pp. 56–61.

———. “Theater and Engineering: An Experiment, 2. Notes by an Engineer.” Artforum (Los Angeles) 5, no. 6 (Feb. 1967), pp. 31–33.

Klüver, Billy, with Julie Martin. “Four Difficult Pieces.” Art in America (New York) 79, no. 7 (July 1991), pp. 80–99, 138.

Kostelanetz, Richard. “The Artist as Playwright and Engineer.” New York Times Magazine, Oct. 9, 1966, cover and pp. 32–33, 109–10, 114, 119–24. Revised and reprinted as “Robert Rauschenberg: Painting in Four Dimensions.” In Kostelanetz. Master Minds: Portraits of Contemporary American Artists and Intellectuals, pp. 251–69. Toronto: Macmillan, 1969.

Kotz, Mary Lynn. “Robert Rauschenberg’s State of the Universe Message.” Artnews (New York) 82, no. 2 (Feb. 1983), cover and pp. 54–61.

———. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Overseas Culture Interchange: A Window on Humanity Through Art.” In Japanese. Trends (United States Information Agency, Washington, D.C.) (Dec. 1986), cover and pp. 17–28.

———. “Rauschenberg’s Tour de Force.” New York Times, May 3, 1987, sec. 2, pp. 30, 33.

———. “Working Habits: Robert Rauschenberg Builds a Painting.” Artnews (New York) 89, no. 8 (Oct. 1990), pp. 123–28.

———. “National News: Rauschenbirthday.” Artnews (New York) 94, no. 8 (Oct. 1995), p. 52.

Krasnow, Iris. “Rauschenberg.” Houston Post, Dec. 16, 1984, sec. F, p. 9.

Krauss, Rosalind. “Rauschenberg and the Materialized Image.” Artforum (New York) 13, no. 4 (Dec. 1974), pp. 36–43.

———. “Perpetual Inventory.” October (Cambridge, Mass.), no. 88 (Spring 1999), pp. 87–116. Originally published in Robert Rauschenberg: A Retrospective, edited by Susan Davidson and Walter Hopps, pp. 206–23. Exh. cat. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1997.

Krčma, Ed. “Dating the Dante Drawings: Rauschenberg and Method.” Burlington Magazine (London) 159, no. 1377 (Dec. 2017), pp. 964–75.

Kutner, Janet. “Rauschenberg on the Road.” Dallas Morning News, Jan. 18, 1987, sec. C, pp. 1, 6–7.

Lacayo, Richard. “The Wild and Crazy Guy.” Time (New York) 171, no. 20 (May 2008), p. 19.

Lacombe, Anne-Marie. “Art et archives: Le cas Robert Rauschenberg.” Documentation et bibliothèques (Montreal) 60, no. 4 (Oct.–Dec. 2014), pp. 198–205.

Landi, Ann. “Poet, Explorer, Innovator, Scavenger, Jester.” Artnews (New York) 107, no. 7 (Summer 2008), pp. 156–59.

Lebovici, Élisabeth. “Robert Rauschenberg: Rebus.” Art Press (Paris), no. 327 (Oct. 2006), pp. 18–20 (in English and French).

Lerman, Leo. “The New Old Masters.” Photographs by Duane Michals. Mademoiselle (New York) 60, no. 4 (Feb. 1965), pp. 120–23.

Lieberman, Henry R. “Art and Science Proclaim Alliance in Avant-Garde Loft.” New York Times, Oct. 11, 1967, p. 49.

Lieberman, William S. “Rauschenberg’s Inferno Drawings.” MoMA (New York), no. 6 (Winter 1975–76), unpaginated.

Linstrom-Arnold, Barbara. “Artists in Residence: Robert Rauschenberg and Darryl Pottorf.” Times of the Islands (Sanibel, Fla.) 10, no. 2 (March–April 2005), cover and pp. 54–59. 

Lippard, Lucy R. “The Silent Art.” Art in America (New York) 55, no. 1 (Jan.–Feb. 1967), pp. 58–63.

Lobel, Michael. “Lost and Found.” Artforum (New York) 54, no. 6 (Feb. 2016), cover and pp. 184–97.

Luc, Virginie. “Robert Rauschenberg: Le dernier géant des artistes américains.” Gala (Paris) (June 1998), pp. 70–75.

Macaulay, Alastair. “Rauschenberg and Dance, Partners for Life.” New York Times, May 14, 2008, sec. E, pp. 1, 5.

Macorini, Edgardo. “Le Illustrazione di Rauschenberg per l’Inferno di Dante.” Domus (Milan), no. 431 (Oct. 1965), pp. 41–47.

Mahoney, Robert. “Sculpture on the Road: Rauschenberg’s ROCI.” Sculpture (Washington, D.C.) 10, no. 6 (Nov.–Dec. 1991), pp. 44–49.

Mamiya, Christin J. “We the People: The Art of Robert Rauschenberg and the Construction of American National Identity.” American Art (National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.) 7, no. 3 (Summer 1993), pp. 41–63.

Mangravite, Peppino G. “Dante Through Three Artists’ Eyes.” Columbia Library Columns (New York) 15, no. 1 (Nov. 1965), pp. 17–27.

“Material Witness.” Artforum (New York) 47, no. 1 (Sept. 2008), pp. 424–41, 484, 492. With contributions by Trisha Brown, Thomas Crow, Merce Cunningham, Branden W. Joseph, Brice Marden, Barbara Rose, James Rosenquist, and Robert Whitman.

Mattison, Robert S. “Robert Rauschenberg’s Autobiography: Context and Meaning.” Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch (Cologne) 59 (1998), pp. 297–305.

de la Maza Chevesich, Josefina. “Introducing the World to Himself: Robert Rauschenberg and ROCI Chile.” Art Criticism (Stony Brook University, N.Y.) 25, nos. 1–2 (2010), pp. 43–57.

McNay, Michael. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Guardian (London), May 13, 2008.

Milroy, Sarah. “Rauschenberg’s Story.” Globe and Mail (Toronto), Oct. 9, 2001, sec. R, pp. 1, 11.

Molesworth, Charles. “From Collage to Combine: Rauschenberg and Visual Culture.” Salmagundi (Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.), nos. 118–19 (Spring–Summer 1998), pp. 29–39.

Molesworth, Helen. “Before Bed.” October (Cambridge, Mass.), no. 63 (Winter 1993), pp. 68–82.

Moore, Frazier. “Captiva’s Artist, and the World’s … Rauschenberg.” Fort Myers News-Press (Fla.), March 19, 1978, sec. E, pp. 1–3. Revised and reprinted as “Rauschenberg of Captiva: An Impish Spirit, a Great Artist.” Floridian (St. Petersburg Times), Oct. 8, 1978, cover and pp. 6–12.

Moorman, Margaret. “The ‘Vasari’ Diary: Rocky Road to Peace and Understanding.” Artnews (New York) 85, no. 2 (Feb. 1985), p. 11.

Morra, Joanne. “Rauschenberg’s Skin: Autobiography, Indexicality, Auto-Eroticism.” New Formations (London), no. 46 (Spring 2002), pp. 48–63.

“Most Happy Fella.” Time (New York) 84, no. 12 (Sept. 18, 1964), pp. 84–87.

Muchnic, Suzanne. “Collage Professor.” Los Angeles Times, Jan. 31, 1998, sec. F, pp. 1, 14. 

Mussman, Toby. “A Comment on Literalness: Should the Picture Plane Be Abolished?” Arts Magazine (New York) 42, no. 4 (Feb. 1968), pp. 14–17.

Naggar, Carole. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Zoom (Paris), no. 23 (March–April 1974), p. 60.

Neil, Jonathan T. D. “Factum I Factum II.” Modern Painters (New York) (Dec. 2005–Jan. 2006), pp. 76–77.

Nemy, Enid. “Artists’ Families Needing Aid Get It from Rauschenberg’s Group.” New York Times, Sept. 25, 1974, p. 46.

Newman, Michael. “Rauschenberg Re-evaluated.” Art Monthly (London), no. 47 (June 1981), pp. 7–10.

O’Connor, Colleen. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Dallas Morning News, March 5, 1989, sec. E, pp. 1–2, 6.

O’Connor, John J. “Art and Technology Make It Official.” Wall Street Journal (New York), Oct. 11, 1967, p. 16.

O’Doherty, Brian. “Rauschenberg and the Vernacular Glance.” Art in America (New York) 61, no. 5 (Sept.–Oct. 1973), pp. 82–87. Revised and reprinted as “Robert Rauschenberg: The Sixties.” In O’Doherty. American Masters: The Voice and the Myth, pp. 188–225. New York: Random House, 1973.

Ohff, Heinz. “Broadway—zwischen Realismus und Utopie.” Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), Aug. 26, 1965.

Öhrner, Annika. “Recalling Pelican: On P.O. Ultvedt, Robert Rauschenberg and Two ‘Ballets.’” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 27–39.

Olson, Roberta J. M. “Rauschenberg, the Extraordinary Ragpicker.” SoHo Weekly News (New York), March 31, 1977, pp. 17–19, 23.

O’Rorke, Robert. “Stella and . . . Rauschenberg.” Art and Artists (London) 5, no. 6 (Sept. 1970), pp. 10, 12.

Pallini, Nicoletta. “Giochi di combinazioni.” L’Indipendente della domenica (Milan), Feb. 1, 1998, p. 9.

Padawer, Martha. “Rauschenberg Criticism, 1950–1970: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.” Bulletin of Bibliography and Magazine Notes (Boston) 30, no. 2 (April–June 1973), pp. 61–68.

Parkinson, Gavin. “‘The Constantin Guys of the atomic era’: on the poetic reception of Robert Rauschenberg by Alain Jouffroy and Surrealism.” Word and Image (London) 39, no. 2 (July 2023), pp. 176-191. 

Perkins, Zoe Annis. “A Chilling Experience: The Treatment of a Robert Rauschenberg ‘Hoarfrost’ Painting.” Textile Specialty Group Postprints (American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Washington, D.C.) 13 (2003), pp. 95–102.

Perlo, Luisa. “Il punto di Svolta fu il New Dada.” Arte (Milan), no. 294 (Feb. 1998), pp. 62–69.

Perocco, Guido. “Rauschenberg.” Le Arti (Milan), nos. 8–9 (Sept.–Oct. 1975), pp. 21–22.

Perreault, John. “Rauschenberg: The World Is His Studio.” Photographs by Robert Mapplethorpe. Geo (Los Angeles) 5, no. 11 (Nov. 1983), pp. 64–71, 98.

———. “Don’t Tread on Me: The Meanings of Rauschenberg’s Glass Tires.” Glass Quarterly (UrbanGlass, Brooklyn, N.Y.), no. 70 (Spring 1998), pp. 20–25.

Perrone, Jeff. “Robert Rauschenberg.” Artforum (New York) 15, no. 6 (Feb. 1977), cover and pp. 24–31.

Peters, Ben. “Rauschenberg: Blueprint Photographer.” Photo Arts (Stamford, Conn) 2, no. 4 (Aug. 1952), pp. 216–21.

Phillips, Siobhan. “Cunningham’s Collaboration.” Hudson Review (New York) 60, no. 3 (Autumn 2007), pp. 468–74.

Pierre, José. “Le ‘Cas’ Rauschenberg.” L’Oeil (Paris), no. 172 (April 1969), cover and pp. 42–50.

Pindell, Howardena. “Robert Rauschenberg’s ‘Link.’” MoMA (New York), no. 1 (Autumn 1974), unpaginated.

Plagens, Peter. “Rauschenberg’s American Beauties: A Life in Theatrical Collage.” New York Times, Oct. 12, 2003, sec. AR, p. 5.

“Portfolio, Dante’s Inferno: Drawings by Robert Rauschenberg.” Second Coming Magazine (New York) 1, no. 2 (July 1961), pp. 17–21.

Potter, Michelle. “‘A License to Do Anything’: Robert Rauschenberg and the Merce Cunningham Dance Company.” Dance Chronicle (New York) 16, no. 1 (1993), pp. 1–43.

Ragon, Michel. “Rauschenberg: La vedette de l’École de New York.” Arts (Paris), no. 1011 (June 23–July 6, 1965), p. 4.

Ratcliff, Carter. “Rauschenberg’s Solvent-Transfer Drawings.” Print Collector’s Newsletter (New York) 18, no. 2 (May–June 1987), pp. 49–51.

Rauschenberg, Christopher. “Robert Rauschenberg, 1925–2008.” Aperture (New York), no. 196 (Autumn 2009), pp. 86–87.

“The Rauschenberg Legacy.” Changing Lives (Edison State College, Fort Myers, Fla.) (Autumn 2008), pp. 7–10.

Reid, Katherine. “Portrait of the Artist.” Gulfshore Life (Naples, Fla.) (Oct. 2004), pp. 150–55.

Richards, Elizabeth. “Rauschenberg’s Religion: Autobiography and Spiritual Reference in Rauschenberg’s Use of Textiles.” Southeastern College Art Conference Review (Carrboro, N.C.) 16, no. 1 (2011), pp. 39–48.

Riley, Charles A., II. “On Top of the World: Artist Robert Rauschenberg’s Global Palette.” WE (New York) 3, no. 3 (May–June 1999), pp. 86–91.

Ripley, Deborah. “Signs of the Times.” Art on Paper 13, no. 1 (Sept.–Oct. 2008), p. 23.

Robbins, Eugenia S. “Performing Art.” Art in America (New York) 54, no. 4 (July–Aug. 1966), pp. 107–11.

“Robert Rauschenberg Ceramics.” Ceramics Monthly (Columbus, Ohio) 31, no. 5 (May 1983), pp. 39–41.

“Robert Rauschenberg: Working with Found Objects.” Scholastic Art (New York) 40, no. 1 (Sept.–Oct. 2009), cover and pp. 2–9.

“Robert Rauschenberg: Kunstler zu sein ist ein Handicap.” Art (Hamburg) (Sept. 1998), pp. 16–25.

Robertson, Bryan. “The Open Destiny of Life.” Modern Painters (London) 11, no. 1 (Spring 1998), pp. 56–62.

Rockburne, Dorothea. “Moveable Feast.” Artforum (New York) 50, no. 3 (Nov. 2011), pp. 218–19.

Rockburne, Dorothea, and Nan Rosenthal. “Tribute to Robert Rauschenberg (1925–2008).” Brooklyn Rail (New York), June 2008, p. 43.

Rohter, Larry. “A Brush with the Master.” Newsweek (New York) 100, no. 5 (Aug. 2, 1982), p. 40.

Rose, Barbara. “Dada Then and Now.” Art International (Zurich) 7, no. 1 (Jan. 25, 1963), pp. 23–28.

———. “Rauschenberg: The Artist as Witness.” Vogue (New York) 167, no. 2 (Feb. 1977), pp. 174–75, 220, 226.

———. “Robert Rauschenberg: From enfant terrible to Old Master.” Art and Antiques (Atlanta) 30, no. 6 (June 2007), pp. 111–13.

———. “Rauschenberg’s Revolution...” Wall Street Journal (New York), May 14, 2008, sec. D, p. 7.

———. “Seeing Rauschenberg Seeing.” Artforum (New York) 47, no. 1 (Sept. 2008), pp. 432–36, 492.

Rosenblatt, Leon. “Robert Rauschenberg in Captiva.” Printable News (Detroit Institute of Arts) (Dec. 1980), pp. 2–8.

Roth, Moira. “The Aesthetic of Indifference.” Artforum (New York) 16, no. 3 (Nov. 1977), pp. 46–53.

Rowes, Barbara. “Painter Robert Rauschenberg Takes a Trip to China and Pops Back with New Shows and New Vitality.” People (New York) 19, no. 3 (Jan. 24, 1983), pp. 82–83.

Ruhrberg, Karl. “Das Leben ist viel zu bunt für großes Pathos.” Art (Hamburg) (Oct. 1995), cover and pp. 14–29.

Saff, Donald J. “Conservation of Matter: Robert Rauschenberg’s Art of Acceptance.” Aperture (New York), no. 125 (Autumn 1991), pp. 24–31.

Sajbel, Maureen. “Signs of the Times.” Vogue (New York) (Jan. 1997), pp. 126–27, 152.

Saltz, Jerry. “Notes on a Drawing: Every Picture Tells a Story.” Arts Magazine (New York) 63, no. 3 (Nov. 1988), pp. 19–22.

———. “American Inventor: Remembering Rauschenberg.” New York 41, no. 19 (May 26, 2008), p. 64.

Seckler, Dorothy Gees. “The Artist Speaks: Robert Rauschenberg.” Photographs by Ugo Mulas. Art in America (New York) 54, no. 3 (May–June 1966), cover and pp. 72–84.

Serafini, Giuliano. “Rauschenberg.” Art Dossier (Florence), no. 198 (March 2004).

“SFMOMA 75th Anniversary: David White.” Interview by Sarah Roberts, Peter Samis, Richard Cándida Smith, and Jill Sterrett, 2009, Regional Oral History Office, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 2010. Accessed Sept. 15, 2014.

Sharp, Christopher. “The Artist as Alchemist: From Garbage to Gold.” Women’s Wear Daily (New York), Sept. 30, 1974, p. 28.

Sharp, Ellen. “From Cliché-Verre Image to Printed Edition.” Printable News (Detroit Institute of Arts) (Dec. 1980), pp. 9–10.

Shaw, John. “Robert Rauschenberg and the Profit Motif.” Antique Collector (London) 52, no. 11 (Nov. 1981), p. 96.

Shepard, Richard F. “‘Venice Biennale’ Weds Local No. 1: Rauschenberg Will Assist Lithographers’ Art Plan.” New York Times, Feb. 16, 1968, p. 34.

Simmons, Todd. “Rauschenberg: Artist’s View Isn’t Colored by Convention.” Tampa Tribune, Jan. 21, 1990, sec. H, pp. 1–2.

Simpson, Bennett. “Rauschenberg’s Iris.” Artbyte (New York) 1, no. 1 (April–May 1998), pp. 14–15.

Smith, Graham. “Robert Rauschenberg’s ‘Odalisque.’” Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch (Cologne) 44 (1983), pp. 375–82.

———. “Contemplating Photographs in Rauschenberg’s Early Work.” History of Photography (London) 38, no. 2 (May 2014), pp. 113–36.

———. “‘Visibile Parlare’: Rauschenberg’s Drawings for Dante’s Inferno.” Word and Image (London) 32, no. 1 (Jan.–March 2016), pp. 77–103.

———. “Rauschenberg’s Modern Infernos for Life Magazine.” Visual Resources (Abingdon, U.K.) 32, nos. 1–2 (March–June 2016), pp. 145–68.

———. “Rauschenberg, Dante, Kennedy, and Space Exploration.” Source: Notes in the History of Art (New York) 35, no. 3 (Spring 2016), pp. 258–67.

———. “Rereading Rauschenberg’s Monogram.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 85, no. 4 (2016), pp. 271–98.

Smith, Mark Lesly. “Suspended Shadows: The Miniature Blueprints of Rauschenberg and Weil.” Print Collector’s Newsletter (New York) 24, no. 4 (Sept.–Oct. 1993), pp. 125–28.

———. “Image and Text in Crisis: Rauschenberg’s and Robbe-Grillet’s Traces suspectes en surface.” Art in Print (Chicago) 2, no. 6 (March–April 2013), pp. 3–7.

Smith, Philip. “To and about Robert Rauschenberg.” Arts Magazine (New York) 51, no. 7 (March 1977), pp. 120–21.

Smith, Roberta. “Rauschenberg Got a Lot from the City and Left a Lot Behind.” New York Times, May 16, 2008, sec. E, p. 34.

Solomon, Alan [R.]. “Is There a New Theater?” New York Times, June 27, 1965, sec. 2, p. 12.

Solway, Diane. “Rauschenberg’s Island.” M (New York) 3, no. 7 (April 1986), pp. 74–80.

“Speaking of Pictures: Blueprint Paper, Sun Lamp, a Nude Produce Some Vaporous Fantasies.” Life (New York) 30, no. 15 (April 9, 1951), pp. 22–24.

Stenström, Emma. “Another Kind of Combine: Monogram and the Moderna Museet.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 48–59.

Stuckey, Charles F. “Reading Rauschenberg.” Art in America (New York) 65, no. 2 (March–April 1977), cover and pp. 74–84.

———. “Let Us Now Praise Robert Rauschenberg.” Art in America (New York) 96, no. 8 (Sept. 2008), p. 38.

Swenson, G. R. “Rauschenberg Paints a Picture.” Artnews (New York) 62, no. 2 (April 1963), pp. 44–47, 65–67.

“The Talk of the Town: Rauschenberg.” New Yorker 53, no. 14 (May 23, 1977), pp. 30–31.

Tellgren, Anna. “Rauschenberg’s Swedish Combines.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 72–77.

Trebay, Guy. “Rauschenworld.” Village Voice (New York), Sept. 30, 1997, p. 30.

Tomkins, Calvin. “Profiles: Moving Out.” New Yorker 40, no. 2 (Feb. 29, 1964), pp. 39–105. Revised and reprinted as “Robert Rauschenberg.” In Tomkins. The Bride and the Bachelors: The Heretical Courtship in Modern Art, pp. 189–237. New York: Viking Press, 1965.

———. “The Man Who Created the Most Public Work of Private Art in History.” With print by Rauschenberg, Cover for Tropic (1979), edition of 650,000. Tropic (Miami Herald), Dec. 30, 1979, pp. 20–22.

  • Harmel, Pat. “On December 30, 1979 Robert Rauschenberg Will Welcome in the 80’s with the Largest Limited Edition Art Work in History.” Islander (Sanibel, Fla.), Dec. 25, 1979, pp. 13–15.
  • Kohen, Helen L. “Stat Art.” Miami Herald, Dec. 23, 1979, sec. L, pp. 1, 3.

———. “Profiles: Everything in Sight.” New Yorker 81, no. 14 (May 23, 2005), pp. 67–77.

Tōno, Yoshiaki. “Rauschenberg.” Mizue (Tokyo), no. 683 (Feb. 1962), pp. 42–56 (in Japanese).

———. “Rauschenberg’s ‘Combine-Statement.’” SAC Journal (Tokyo), no. 34 (Dec. 1963), unpaginated (in Japanese).

———. Feature article on Rauschenberg. Bijutsu Techo (Tokyo) 22, no. 326 (April 1970), pp. 68–96 (in Japanese).

Towle, Tony. “Rauschenberg: Two Collaborations—Robbe-Grillet and Voznesensky.” Print Collector’s Newsletter (New York) 10, no. 2 (May–June 1979), pp. 37–41.

Troiano, Vanessa S. “The ‘Bauhaus Idea’ in Robert Rauschenberg’s Blueprints.” Wolkenkuckucksheim | Cloud-Cuckoo-Land | Воздушный замок: International Journal of Architectural Theory (Cottbus, Germany) 24, no. 39 (2019), pp. 99–113.

Tucker, Jean. “Master of Pop Art School Applying His ‘Touch’ to Dance Program Design.” Hartford Courant (Conn.), March 20, 1964, p. 27.

Turner, Fred. “Romantic Automatism: Art, Technology, and Collaborative Labor in Cold War America.” Journal of Visual Culture (London) 7, no. 1 (April 2008), pp. 5–26.

Updike, Robin. “An Artist’s Symphony of Images.” Seattle Times, Sept. 15, 1998, sec. F, pp. 1–2.

Vallora, Marco. “Rauschenberg, dopo di me solo ragazzi ambizioni.” La Stampa (Turin), Jan. 30, 1998, p. 25.

Vinklers, Bitite. “Why Not Dante?: A Study of Rauschenberg’s Drawings for the Inferno.” Art International (Lugano) 12, no. 6 (Summer 1968), pp. 99–106.

Wainwright, Lisa. “Gustave and the Goat: Rauschenberg’s ‘Monogram’ and Courbet’s ‘The Painter’s Studio.’” Burlington Magazine (London) 159, no. 1377 (Dec. 2017), pp. 956–63.

Wallach, Amei. “The ‘Vasari’ Diary: More Dangerous than Generals [Andrei Voznesensky collaboration].” Artnews (New York) 77, no. 2 (Feb. 1978), pp. 22, 24.

———. “Rauschenberg Goes to Moscow.” Art in America (New York) 77, no. 3 (March 1989), pp. 21, 23.

Weems, Jason. “Scanning Bob’s Body: Rauschenberg’s Booster, Science, and the Techno-Visual Subject.” Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 82, nos. 1–2 (2008), pp. 4–15.

Weingarten, Susanne. “Der Weltfresser bei der Arbeit.” Der Spiegel (Hamburg), no. 26/1998 (June 22, 1998), pp. 174–76.

Whitman, Simone. “Theater and Engineering: An Experiment, 1. Notes by a Participant.” Artforum (Los Angeles) 5, no. 6 (Feb. 1967), pp. 26–30.

Widenheim, Cecilia. “A Goat’s-Eye View—Monogram at the Moderna Museet.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 76, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 40–47.

Wivel, Mikael. “Stol på mig.” Berlingske Aften (Copenhagen), Feb. 4–10, 1983, sec. 2, p. 13.

Wortz, Melinda. “Rauschenberg’s Bones and Unions.” Artweek (Oakland) 6, no. 35 (Oct. 18, 1975), p. 2.

Young, Joseph. “New Editions: Robert Rauschenberg [Horsefeathers Thirteen].” Artnews (New York) 73, no. 3 (March 1974), pp. 48–49.

———. “Pages and Fuses: An Extended View of Robert Rauschenberg.” Print Collector’s Newsletter (New York) 5, no. 2 (May–June 1974), pp. 25–30.



Abeel, Erica. “Daedalus at the Rollerdome.” Saturday Review (New York) 48, no. 35 (Aug. 28, 1965), pp. 51–53.

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Alloway, Lawrence. “Technology and Art Schools.” Studio International (London) 175, no. 889 (April 1968), pp. 184–86.

Anger, Jenny. “Paul Klee, Anni and Josef Albers, and Robert Rauschenberg: Weaving and the Grid at Black Mountain College.” In Klee and America, edited by Josef Helfenstein and Elizabeth Hutton Turner, pp. 238–53. Exh. cat. Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2006.

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“Art Crashes Through the Junk Pile.” Life (New York) 51, no. 21 (Nov. 24, 1961), pp. 60–69, 72.

Ashton, Dore. “A Planned Coincidence.” Art in America (New York) 57, no. 5 (Sept.–Oct. 1969), pp. 36–47.

Baker, Richard Brown. “My Dinner with Jasper Johns (and Robert Rauschenberg, Leo Castelli, Robert and Ethel Scull, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline and Lots More).” Paris Review (New York), no. 143 (Summer 1997), pp. 212–23.

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