The chronology by Joan Young with Susan Davidson in Robert Rauschenberg: A Retrospective (New York: The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1997), updated by Davidson and Kara Vander Weg for Robert Rauschenberg (New York: Gagosian Gallery, 2010), has been further revised for the Robert Rauschenberg Foundation website by foundation staff with Amanda Sroka.
When an event cannot be dated precisely within a given year, it appears at the beginning of that year. When a date or span of dates is speculative, it appears in brackets.
Born Milton Ernest Rauschenberg on October 22, 1925, in Port Arthur, Texas, an oil refinery town on the Gulf of Mexico, near the Louisiana border. The only son of Dora Carolina Matson and Ernest Rauschenberg, an employee of Gulf States Utilities, a local light and power company, he is of Cherokee, Dutch, German, and Swedish descent. As a child, creates an elaborately decorated environment in his room, drawing images on the walls, painting red fleurs-de-lis all over the woodwork and furniture, and building a structure of crates filled with jars and boxes of found objects to divide the room that he shares with his only sibling, Janet, born in 1936. Learns to fish at an early age. Develops a love for animals and has many pets, including ducks, rabbits, frogs, and a goat. Raised by a deeply religious mother, Rauschenberg aspires to become a preacher at age thirteen but decides against it when he realizes the fundamentalist Church of Christ to which his family belongs forbids dancing, one of his passions. Attends public schools in Port Arthur and graduates from Thomas Jefferson High School, where he is active in the school theater as a costume and set designer.
Settles in Los Angeles and works briefly as an illustrator for a Westwood newspaper and later as a packing clerk at a bathing suit factory where he meets Pat Pearman, an assistant designer, who convinces him that he has talent after seeing his drawings.
- 1. Josef Albers, quoted in Martin Duberman, Black Mountain: An Exploration in Community (New York: W. W. Norton, 1993), p. 56.
- 2. Thanks to Sarah Roberts and Meredith Van Dyke of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art for confirming the exact address of the 95th Street apartment, based on the address included in an expense report dated June 6, 1951. Box 14, folder 20, Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers, ca. 1920–91, bulk 1946–83, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
- 3. Susan Davidson, “Mother of God,” Rauschenberg Research Project (San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, July 2013), http://www.sfmoma.org/explore/collection/artwork/37592/essay/mother_of_god.
- 4. Many of the exhibited works are destroyed the following summer in a fire at the Weils’ summer home or in 1957 in a fire at the apartment of artist Sari Dienes. Only four of the seventeen works are extant today: Crucifixion and Reflection (ca. 1950), Mother of God (ca. 1950), 22 the Lily White (ca. 1950), and Untitled (1951). Two additional works, Number 1 (1951) and Should Love Come First? (ca. 1951; now known as Untitled [small black painting]), were repainted black in 1953. Photographs by Aaron Siskind document four of the lost or destroyed works; the photographs are published in Roni Feinstein, “The Unknown Early Robert Rauschenberg: The Betty Parsons Exhibition of 1951,” Arts Magazine (New York) 59, no. 5 (Jan. 1985), pp. 126–29.
- 5. Quoted in Alain Sayag, “Interview with Robert Rauschenberg,” Robert Rauschenberg Photographs (New York: Pantheon Books, 1981), unpaginated.
- 6. The handwritten letter is reproduced in Walter Hopps, Robert Rauschenberg: The Early 1950s, exh. cat. (Houston: The Menil Collection and Houston Fine Arts Press, 1991), p. 230.
- 7. Joel Oppenheimer, “The Dancer,” Jargon, no. 2 (Black Mountain College, N.C.: Sad Devil Press, 1951).
- 8. For additional accounts of the event, see Duberman, Black Mountain, pp. 350–58, and William Fetterman, “The Untitled Event at Black Mountain College, Theatre Piece, Solos in Song Books, and Dialogue: Variations on Small-Group Simultaneities,” in John Cage’s Theatre Pieces: Notations and Performances (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1996).
- 9. No information other than the printed announcement survives. Of these intimately scaled collages, thirty-eight are known to still exist. In 1990, Rauschenberg created Shirtboards, an editioned version of these collages.
- 10. Of these intimately scaled collages, thirty-eight are known to still exist. In 1990, Rauschenberg created Shirtboards, an editioned version of these collages.
- 11. Rauschenberg’s statement is reproduced in Hopps, p. 32.
- 12. At this time, the known extant works from this group are: nine gold; one lead; one dirt; and two clay paintings, one of which was remade by the artist as a replacement for the 1953 original belonging to John Cage that had been borrowed for exhibition but was never returned.
- 13. Ten of the works, which have been lost or destroyed, are documented in photographs of the exhibition made for Life, although they were never published in the magazine.
- 14. John Cage’s statement, distributed as a handout in the gallery, is quoted in its entirety in Emily Genauer, “Art and Artists: Musings on Miscellany,” New York Herald Tribune, Dec. 27, 1953, sec. 4, p. 6.
- 15. The 1955–56 exhibition of the work is discussed in Sarah Roberts, “Erased de Kooning Drawing,” Rauschenberg Research Project (San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, July 2013). Accessed Sept. 15, 2014. http://www.sfmoma.org/explore/collection/artwork/25846/essay/erased_de_kooning_drawing. The exhibition dates are confirmed by the Estate of Jack Tworkov website, where the exhibition announcement is also available. Accessed Sept. 15, 2014. http://jacktworkov.com/exhibitions/index.php?.
- 16. Quoted in Barbara Rose, Rauschenberg (New York: Vintage Books, 1987), p. 53.
- 22. Merce Cunningham and Dance Company, brochure (New York: Foundation for Contemporary Performance Arts, 1963), unpaginated.
- 23. The first state of Rauschenberg’s Monogram (1955–59; first state 1955–56) and Johns’s Target with Plaster Casts (1955) had both been submitted with the encouragement of Horace Richter (who had been introduced to the artists by Allan Kaprow), a member of the Jewish Museum’s Administrative Committee, but the works were ultimately declined by the jury and the other works were exhibited instead.
- 26. Rauschenberg, typescript of interview, July 1991, with Miranda McClintic for her proposed book Recycling Reality: The Found Object in Twentieth-Century Art. Copy in Robert Rauschenberg Archives, Robert Rauschenberg Foundation. The readymade was acquired in 1959, but when Rauschenberg asked Duchamp to sign it in 1960, Duchamp inscribed it “1960.”
- 27. Paul B. Franklin, “Chronology,” in Dancing around the Bride: Cage, Cunningham, Johns, Rauschenberg, and Duchamp, exh. cat. (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2013), p. 323.
- 28. Rauschenberg, statement in Dorothy C. Miller, ed., Sixteen Americans, exh. cat. (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1959), p. 58.
- 29. Quoted in “The Emperor’s Combine,” Time (New York) 75, no. 16 (April 18, 1960), p. 92.
- 30. Merce Cunningham and Dance Company, brochure (New York: Foundation for Contemporary Performance Arts, 1963), unpaginated.
- 31. Quoted in David Sears, “A Trisha Brown–Robert Rauschenberg Collage,” Ballet Review (New York) 10, no. 3 (Autumn 1982), p. 48.
- 1. Robert Rauschenberg Archives, Robert Rauschenberg Foundation.
- 2. Tomkins, Off the Wall, p. 192.
- 3. Billy Klüver and Robert Rauschenberg. “Art in Motion—A Combined Memory.” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History (Stockholm) 27, nos. 1–2 (2007), pp. 114–18.
- 4. Participants cited in Niki de Saint Phalle: Catalogue Raisonné, 1949–2000 (Lausanne: Acatos and Benteli, Bern, 2001), p. 107. Super 8 film, 13 minutes, 22 seconds, Klüver-Martin Archive, New Jersey.
- 5. Full citation to come.
- 6. “Autobiography,” in Andrew Forge, Rauschenberg (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1969), p. 226. The text originally appears in the lithograph Autobiography (1968).
- 1. Dorothy Gees Seckler, oral history interview with Rauschenberg, Dec. 21, 1965, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Accessed Sept. 15, 2014. http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/interviews/oral-history-interview-robert-rauschenberg-12870.
- 2. Thomas Crow, “Social Register,” Artforum (New York) 47, no. 1 (Sept. 2008), pp. 426–29.
- 3. Susan Davidson, “Robert Rauschenberg,” in Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Collection (Bilbao: Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, 2009), p. 93, nn. 23–24.
- 4. Henry Geldzahler, “Robert Rauschenberg,” Art International (Lugano) 7, no. 7 (Sept. 25, 1963), p. 66.
- 1. Pierre Schneider, “Art News from Paris,” Artnews (New York) 62, no. 2 (April 1963), p. 48.
- 2. Rauschenberg, “Random Order,” Location (New York) 1, no. 1 (Spring 1963), p. 28.
- 3. Quoted in Robert Rauschenberg, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 1977), p. 40.
- 4. Forge, Rauschenberg, p. 18.
- 1. Walasse Ting, 1¢ Life, ed. Sam Francis (Bern, Switzerland: E. W. Kornfeld, 1964).
- 2. Sally Banes, Greenwich Village 1963: Avant-Garde Performance and the Effervescent Body (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993), p. 90.
- 3. G. di San Lazzaro, “La XXXIIe Biennale de Venise,” XXe Siècle (Paris) 26, no. 24 (Dec. 1964), unpaginated supplement.
- 4. Tomkins, Off the Wall, p. 235.
- 5. Erwin A. Glikes and Paul Schwaber, eds., Of Poetry and Power: Poems Occasioned by the Presidency and by the Death of John F. Kennedy, with foreword by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. (New York: Basic Books, 1964).
- 51. June 14, 1961 has been recorded as an airdate for the interview. However, Sylvester published the transcript and indicates that the interview never aired. David Sylvester, Interviews with American Artists (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001).
- 52. John Gruen, “Painter Dancing in the Dark,” Sunday Herald Tribune Magazine (New York), Jan. 2, 1966, p. 34.
- 1. E-mail correspondence from Deborah Hay, July 2, 2014, and from Steve Paxton, July 3, 2014, with Julia Blaut. Hay was the first to mention the details of the wedding, which were further clarified by Paxton.
- 2. Quoted in Hopps, Robert Rauschenberg, p. 45.
- 3. The collaborations at the festival resulted in about nineteen new patents obtained by the engineers.
- 1. The content of the lectures and published texts was clarified by Leo Steinberg in a telephone conversation with Susan Davidson and Joan Young, August 11, 1997, and by a facsimile of the original lecture notes. For the complete amended text, see Steinberg, “Reflections on the State of Criticism,” Artforum (New York) 10, no. 7 (March 1972), pp. 37–49; for the two quotations, see pp. 46–47.
- 2. LaHaye and Ellmore were the primary engineering collaborators. George Carr supervised the building of a prototype in fall 1969; in 1970, Jim Wilkinson was chief engineer overseeing construction and Carl Adams coordinated the actual construction. Maurice Tuchman, A Report on the Art and Technology Program of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1967–1971 (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1971), pp. 279–88.
- 3. E.A.T. competition advertisement, New York Times, Nov. 12, 1967, sec. D, p. 38.
- 1. In 1972, Abrams will publish an offprint of the text in the Meridian Modern Artists series for easier accessibility.
- 2. Timothy Hilton, “Heroic Monograph,” Studio International (London) 180, no. 927 (Nov. 1970), p. 207.
- 3. TECHNE: A Projects and Process Paper (New York) 1, no. 1 (April 14, 1969) and 1, no. 2 (Nov. 6, 1970).
- 4. “Robert Rauschenberg: Notes on Stoned Moon Lithographic Project (Oct. 28, 1969).” Studio International (London) 178, no. 917 (Dec. 1969), cover and pp. 246–47.
- 5. Helen Hsu, “Chronology,” in Susan Davidson, ed. John Chamberlain: Choices (New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2012), p. 206. See also Grace Glueck, “New York Sculptor Says Intrepid Put Art on Moon,” New York Times, Nov. 22, 1969, p. 19.
- 1. Rauschenberg, Currents, exh. brochure (New York: Castelli Graphics and Automation House, 1970), unpaginated.
- 67. Quoted in Grace Glueck, “Artists to Withdraw Work at Biennale,” New York Times, June 6, 1970, sec. 1, p. 27.
- 68. Rauschenberg, exh. announcement (New York: Castelli Graphics and Automation House, 1970).
- 1. Jack Cowart and James Elliott, Prints from the Untitled Press, Captiva, Florida, exh. cat. (Hartford, Conn.: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1973), p. 5.
- 1. Brochure, International Design Conference, Aspen, 1973, unpaginated.
- 2. From audio recording, transferred to DVD, June 19, 1973. International Design Conference in Aspen papers, Richard J. Daley Library Special Collections and University Archives, University of Illinois, Chicago.
- 3. Telephone conversations between Gina Guy and Robert Petersen, Oct. 22, 2013 and April 1, 2014.
- 4. Roberta B. Gratz, “Artist’s a Study in Blue at Scull’s SRO Auction,” New York Post, Oct. 19, 1973, p. 3.
- 1. See Robert S. Mattison, “Pyramid Series,” Rauschenberg Research Project (San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, July 2013). Accessed Sept. 15, 2014. http://www.sfmoma.org/explore/collection/artwork/25849.
- 2. Quoted in Mary Lynn Kotz, Rauschenberg: Art and Life (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990), p. 195. From unpublished transcript of meeting with Israeli students, Israel Museum, Jerusalem, May 29, 1974.
- 1. Amendment 308 to the Tax Reform Bill, H.R. 10612.
- 2. Quoted in Kotz, Rauschenberg, p. 210.
- 3. Quoted in “The Talk of the Town: Rauschenberg,” New Yorker 53, no. 14 (May 23, 1977), p. 31.
- 4. Anne Livet, Brazos River: A Video Collaboration, unpublished exh. cat., 1977, tape 2. Robert Rauschenberg Archives, Robert Rauschenberg Foundation.
- 5. Rauschenberg quoted in Janet Kutner, “An Artist at Work,” Dallas Morning News, Jan. 2 1977, sec. C, p. 1.
- 1. Merce Cunningham quoted in Anna Kisselgoff, “A Dance Revolutionary on Broadway,” New York Times, Jan. 16, 1977, sec. D, p. 8.
- 2. “The Talk of the Town,” pp. 30–31. Rauschenberg was not satisfied with the experience: “Doing it didn’t yield any new experience for me aesthetically. It’s a good idea, but to make it interesting for artists they’d have to modify it considerably . . . make it more flexible” (p. 31).
- 1. Rauschenberg’s role as costume designer for Dandelion is confirmed in Jeff Slayton, The Prickly Rose: A Biography of Viola Farber (Bloomington, Ind.: AuthorHouse, 2006), p. 360. The premiere date, venue, and cast, however, are unconfirmed by primary sources.
- 2. Andrei Voznesensky, Nostalgia for the Present (New York: Doubleday, 1978).
- 88. Rauschenberg’s role as costume designer for Tracks is confirmed in Slayton, The Prickly Rose, p. 361. The premiere date, venue, and cast, however, are unconfirmed by primary sources.
- 1. See Larry Rohter, “China: A Brush with the Master,” Newsweek (New York), Aug. 2, 1982, p. 40, and Rauschenberg interview with Yoshiaki Tono, in ROCI JAPAN, exh. cat. (Tokyo: Setagaya Museum of Art, 1986), pp. 11–12.
- 2. Hiroko Ikegami, “ROCI East: Rauschenberg’s Encounters in China,” in East-West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship, Lee Glazer, Amelia A. Goerlitz, and Cynthia Mill, eds. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2012), pp. 179–80. See also “The Reminiscences of Donald Saff,” 2013, pp. 98–101 and “The Reminiscences of Sidney B. Felsen,” 2014, pp. 45–46 (Robert Rauschenberg Oral History Project, Columbia Center for Oral History Research, Columbia University in the City of New York and Robert Rauschenberg Foundation Archives).
The Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange, after six years of only spiritual support, is now a reality. ROCI, as we shortly put it, is a four-year private project taking, making and exchanging art and facts around the world.
Emphasis will be placed on sharing experiences with societies less familiar with non-political ideas or communicating “worldly” through art. A selection of works done in, or influenced by, participating countries will then continue to travel, including videos, photographs, sound, drawings, prints, and catalogues, to the next country, systematically eclipsing the opening exhibit, which functions as a catalyst, enabling the international exhibition and collaboration to exist and grow.
I feel strong in my beliefs, based on my varied and widely traveled collaborations, that a one-to-one contact through art contains potent peaceful powers, and is the most non-elitist way to share exotic and common information, seducing us into creative mutual understandings for the benefit of all.
- 1. Our thanks to Dr. Sam Monroe, who retired in August 2014 as long-time president of Lamar State College—Port Arthur and provided us with the details about Rauschenberg’s return visits to Port Arthur.
- 2. Quoted in “Presentation Citation and Investiture of Robert Rauschenberg with the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Fine Arts,” New York University, 1984. Robert Rauschenberg Archives, Robert Rauschenberg Foundation.
- 3. See photographs published in David Friend, “All Aboard the Shuttle,” Life (New York) 7, no. 11 (Oct. 1984), pp. 72–73.
- 4. Rauschenberg, “Tobago Statement,” in Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1991), p. 154.
- 1. Quoted in “Panel Hearing on Bork as Justice: Professors and Artists Voice Their Views,” New York Times, Sept. 23, 1987, sec. A, p. 28.
- 1. Quoted in Kotz, Rauschenberg, p. 37. From unpublished transcript of ROCI CUBA forum for students and public, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana, Feb. 6, 1988.
- 1. Per Biorn. “First-Hand: The Saga of ‘Astral Convertible.’” IEEE Global History Network, n.d. Accessed Sept. 25, 2014. http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/First-Hand:The_Saga_of_%22Astral_Convertible%22.
- 2. Trisha Brown, quoted in Jennifer Dunning, “A Set to Upstage the Dancers,” New York Times, March 14, 1989, sec. C, p. 17.
- 3. Yevgeny Yevtushenko, in Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange, p. 52. Originally published in Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange: ROCI USSR, exh. cat. (Moscow: Tretyakov Gallery, Central House of Culture, 1989) [in Russian].
- 4. Quoted in Rauschenberg and Saff, “A Conversation about Art and ROCI,” p. 171.
- 105. Robert Rauschenberg Archives, Robert Rauschenberg Foundation. See also H.R. 245, State of Texas House of Representatives and S.R. 233, Texas Senate.
- 1. Robert Rauschenberg, “A Portfolio of Seven Drawings,” Grand Street (New York) no. 38 (Autumn 1991), pp. 57–92.
- 1. John Cage, The First Meeting of the Satie Society (New York: Osiris, 1985–94).
- 1. Letter to Mr. Tsutomu Takashima, Aquavella Gallery, New York, Robert Rauschenberg, Captiva Island, Florida, Sept. 9, 1993. Robert Rauschenberg Archives, Robert Rauschenberg Foundation.
- 1. Allison Adato, “The Magic of Art: A Master Painter Shows How He Does It.” Life magazine (New York) 21, no. 2 (Feb. 1998), pp. 51, 53. See also, Chuck Close, online catalogue-raisonné, Artifex. Accessed on May 15, 2013.
- 1. Robert Rauschenberg, “Seen of the Crime,” Grand Street (New York) no. 62 (Fall 1997), p. 21.
- 1. Rauschenberg quoted in Norman Pearlstine, “To Our Readers,” Time magazine (New York) 151, no. 14, April 13, 1998, pp. TK.
- 1. Mario Codognato and Mirta d’Argenzio, “Interview with Robert Rauschenberg,” in Rauschenberg, exh. cat. (Ferrara: Palazzo dei diamanti, 2004), p. 97 (in English and Italian).
- 2. Dave Hickey, “Apogamy Pods: Rauschenberg Erases Rauschenberg,” in Rauschenberg: Apogamy Pods, exh. cat. (New York: PaceWildenstein, 2000), p. 6.
- 3. Bernice Rose, “Anagrams,” in Anagrams, exh. cat. (New York: PaceWildenstein, 1996).
- 4. Susan Davidson, “The Century’s 25 Most Influential Artists: Unending Irreverence.” Artnews (New York) 98, no. 5 (May 1999), p. 147.
- 5. Jane Ganahl, “Rauschenberg Glides In,” San Francisco Examiner, May 8, 1999, sec. D, p. 1.
- 6. “Presentation to Robert Rauschenberg of The Gold Medal for Painting by Brice Marden.” In Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, Second Series, no. 50 (New York: American Academy of Arts and Letters, 1999), p. 63.
- 118. Robert Rauschenberg: Short Stories, exh. cat. (Zurich: Galerie Jamileh Weber, 2001), p. 3.
- 119. Howard Kissel, “Rauschenberg Roulette: Famed Artist Brings in a Circle of Friends to Finish His Latest Project,” New York Daily News, June 25, 2000.
- 120. Michael Kimmelman, “The Irrepressible Ragman of Art,” New York Times, August 27, 2000. Accessed October 10, 2010.http://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/27/arts/art-architecture-the-irrepressible-ragman-of-art.html.
- 1. Celia Wren, “Bobrauschenbergamerica,” American Theatre Magazine (New York) 1807 (Sept. 1, 2001).
- 1. Codognato and d’Argenzio, “Interview with Robert Rauschenberg,” p. 93.
- 2. Calvin Tomkins, “Profiles: Everything in Sight,” New Yorker 81, no. 14 (May 23, 2005). Accessed October 10, 2010. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/05/23/050523fa_fact_tomkins.
- 3. Statement by the artist in Robert Rauschenberg: Short Stories, exh. cat. (New York: PaceWildenstein, 2003).
- 4. Jim Kelly, “To Our Readers: Covering the Story,” Time (New York) 160, no. 11 (Sept. 9, 2002), p. 8.
- 1. Sarah Schmerler, “3 Questions for Robert Rauschenberg,” Time Out New York, no. 392 (April 3–10, 2003), p. 6.
- 1. Deborah Solomon, “Growing Old, Artfully,” New York Times Magazine, Feb. 15, 2004, p. 13. Accessed Oct. 10, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/15/magazine/15QUESTIONS.html.
- 2. Transcript of footage for “CBS Sunday Morning,” Aug. 8, 2004. Robert Rauschenberg Archives, Robert Rauschenberg Foundation.
- 3. Barbara Linstrom-Arnold, “Artists in Residence,” Times of the Islands (Sanibel, Fla.) 10, no. 2 (March–April 2005), p. 59.
- 4. Invitation card for “Vote with Your Art, OK Harris, New York, Oct. 20, 2004, Robert Rauschenberg Archives, Robert Rauschenberg Foundation.
- 1. Quoted in Rauschenberg Scenarios, exh. cat. (New York: PaceWildenstein, 2005), pp. 7–8.
- 2. Carol Vogel, “The Modern Buys ‘Rebus,’” New York Times, June 17, 2005. Accessed October 1, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/17/arts/design/17voge.html.
- 3. Carol Vogel, “The Robert Rauschenberg Reunion Tour,” New York Times, Dec. 18, 2005. Accessed October 1, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/18/arts/design/18vogel.html.
- 4. Robert Hughes, “Spirit of the Age,” Guardian (London), Jan. 25, 2006. Accessed October 1, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2006/jan/26/art1.
- 1. Michael Kimmelman, “Robert Rauschenberg: American Artist, Dies at 82,” New York Times, May 14, 2008. Accessed Oct. 1, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/14/arts/design/14rauschenberg.html.